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Saturday, March 15, 2014

Ch. 20 Overview

USH: Unit 5 - Ch. 20 – SOCIETY AFTER WW2 (1945-1960)
OVERVIEW: The end of WW2 renewed Americans' optimism about the future. Soon, however, the country was caught up in a Cold War with the Soviet Union. President Truman's commitment to contain the spread of communism led to greater US involvement in Korea and a growing suspicion that there were spies at home. The Cold War intensified as President Eisenhower stepped up the nuclear arms race. In this chapter you will learn how Americans adjusted to the domestic transition from war to peace.
VOCAB: GI Bill of Rights, Employment Act, Council of Economic Advisors, Taft-Hartley Act, Committee on Civil Rights, Dixiecrats, The Election of 1948, Fair Deal, Automation, Baby Boom, Juvenile Delinquency, Rock ‘N Roll, Modern Republicanism, Highway Act, Building the Burbs, The Growth of TV, Consumerism, Social Activities, Elvis, Beats, Urban Renewal, Brown v. Board of Education, Thurgood Marshall, Little Rock 9, Rosa Parks, Montgomery Improvement Association, Martin Luther King Jr., Civil Rights Act of 1957, Felix Longoria, LULAC, Ralph Ellison, Jack Kerouac
POST-WW2 SOCIETY – AN OVERIVEW:
1. THE POST-WW2 US SAW MANY CONFLICTS
- Conflicts over LABOR UNIONS, CIVIL RIGHTS, and any EXPANSION OF THE NEW DEAL into such areas as national health insurance, housing, full employment, welfare benefits
2. RAPID GROWTH OF THE ECONOMY:
- Allowed many Americans to move to suburbs and have more children; Became known as the BABY BOOM
- Apparent in the rapid spread of TV
3. TRUMAN and the FAIR DEAL:
- Promised: FULL EMPLOYMENT, HIGHER MINIMUM WAGE, NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAM, AFFORDABLE HOUSING, INCREASED AID TO FARMERS, EXPANSION OF WELFARE BENEFITS
- FAIR DEAL had limited success in an INCREASINGLY CONSERVATIVE postwar political climate
- Americans had become LESS ENTHUSIASTIC about reform programs that would further expand the gov
- Most people, weary of the upheaval of recent years, just wanted PEACE, STABILITY, and PROSPERITY
4. THE RISE OF YOUTH CULTURE:
- High school attendance becomes universal
- ROCK ‘N’ ROLL arises
- Others also questioned CONFORMITY, especially the BEATS
5. THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT BEGINS:
A.  BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION, 1954
- Reverses PLESSY V. FERGUSON (1896), which had established the legality of “separate-but-equal” schools; Shown through the hardships of the LITTLE ROCK 9
- Declares segregation in public schools ILLEGAL
B. MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT: After desegregation in school efforts succeeded, the fight moved towards desegregating transportation, such as forcing African Americans to ride in the back of buses
- Begins in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama when ROSA PARKS refused to move to the back of a city bus.
- MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. (MLK) was MIA’s spokesman
- MLK was a Baptist minister, who was an ENERGETIC and MOVING SPEAKER
- White protesters used INTIMIDATION and VIOLENCE to try and stop the protests
C. SHOWDOWN IN LITTLE ROCK, 1957: Integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, can only take place after President Eisenhower sends in the National Guard
D. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957: Congress passed the 1st new civil rights law since Reconstruction; Also passed laws to protect voting rights and to study violations of civil rights
E. HISPANICS, ASIANS, and INDIANS became increasingly motivated to also fight for their rights
- FELIX LONGORIA: Deceased Mexican American WW2 vet, from TX, whose remains were turned down for burial by the only funeral home in his hometown; TX Senator LBJ had him buried at Arlington National Cemetery after a huge outpour of criticism
- LULAC: Formed in 1929 – fought for Hispanic rights in the same way that the NAACP championed African American rights
- LULAC, like the NAACP, fought against segregation: Menendez v. West Minster School District (1945) and Delgado v. Bastrop ISD (1948) found that school segregation in CA and TX was illegal for Mexican American students
- ASIAN AMERICAN Challenges: Discrimination; Belief that they did not fit the American “IDEAL”; Continued nativism
- AMERICAN INDIAN Challenges: Relocation and termination policies; Gov pressure to assimilate
6. THE NONAFFLUENT SOCIETY:
- Late 1950s: 30-40 million in the US living in poverty
- The RURAL POOR: Rural residents, particularly farmers, represented the poorest segment
- Although FARMING PRODUCTIVITY INCREASED from 1950-1960, FARM INCOMES SHRANK b/c foreign countries were importing less food after WW2
- AGRICULTURE PRICES FELL DRAMATICALLY, small farms were hurt, and migrant workers struggled w/ employment
- Many still had NO INDOOR PLUMBING OR ELECTRICITY
- By 1960 more than 20 million city-dwellers were LIVING IN POVERTY
- AFRICAN AND MEXICAN AMERICANS were moving into cities in greater #s, though were faced with poverty and discriminatory real estate pricing

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