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Saturday, March 15, 2014

Ch. 19 Overview

USH: Unit 5 - Ch. 19 – THE COLD WAR (1945-1960); BHS
OVERVIEW - THE COLD WAR: After WW2, the US clashed with the Soviet Union over such issues as the Soviet dominance over Eastern Europe, control of atomic weapons, and the Soviet blockade of Berlin. The establishment of a Communist government in China in 1949 and the North Korean invasion of South Korea in 1950 helped transform the Cold War into a global conflict. The US would confront Communism in Iran, Guatemala, Lebanon, and elsewhere. In an atmosphere charged with paranoia and anxiety, there was deep fear at home about “enemies within” sabotaging US foreign policy and passing atomic secrets to the Soviets. Quick understanding:
1. WW2 was followed by a Cold War that pitted the US (Capitalist) and its allies against the Soviet Union (communist) and its supporters
2. This conflict was called the Cold War (no direct military conflict), but it would flare into violence in Korea and Vietnam and in many smaller conflicts
3. The period from 1946 to 1991 was punctuated by a series of East-West confrontations over Germany, Poland, Greece, Czechoslovakia, China, Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, and many other hot spots
VOCAB: Potsdam Conference, Nuremberg Trials, United Nations, Zionism, Satellite Nations, Containment, Cold War, George Kennan, Baruch Plan, Atomic Energy Act, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Berlin Blockade, Berlin Airlift, NATO, Warsaw Pact, Brinkmanship, Communism in China, Korean War, Central Intelligence Agency, Nikita Khrushchev and the U-2 Incident, Hydrogen Bomb, National Security Council, House Un-American Activities Committee, Hollywood Ten, Alger Hiss, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Internal Security Act, Joseph McCarthy, Billy Graham, Sputnik, NASA, National Defense Education Act
WHAT WAS THE US LIKE: In 1945, the US was a far different country than it subsequently became. Nearly a third of Americans lived in poverty. A third of the country's homes had no running water, two-fifths lacked flushing toilets, and three-fifths lacked central heating. More than half of the nation's farm dwellings had no electricity. Most African Americans still lived in the South, where racial segregation in schools and public accommodations were still the law. The number of immigrants was small as a result of immigration quotas enacted during the 1920s. Shopping malls had not yet been introduced.
Following WW2, the US began an economic boom that brought unparalleled prosperity to a majority of its citizens and raised Americans expectations, breeding a belief that most economic and social problems could be solved. Among the crucial themes of this period were the struggle for equality among women and minorities, and the backlash that these struggles evoked; the growth of the suburbs, and the shift in power from the older industrial states and cities of the Northeast and upper Midwest to the South and West; and the belief that the US had the economic and military power to maintain world peace and shape the behavior of other nations.
A. The phrase The Cold War refers to the political and military tensions between the US and the Soviet Union and their allies following WW2 and only ending in 1991, when the SU disintegrated
B. It was called a Cold War because there was no direct military conflict between the US and the Soviet Union, though they did struggle for global power
C. Indirect military conflicts did take place in Korea, Vietnam and elsewhere
1.  POTUS Harry Truman announced the Truman Doctrine in 1949. He declared that it was the policy of the US "to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
2. The US adopted the Containment Policy to take steps to prevent Soviet expansion
3. The US implemented the Containment Policy through:
A. The Marshall Plan, which provided economic aid to restore Western Europe’s economic health
B. The creation of West Germany, which combined the US, British, and French sectors of occupied Germany
C. The establishment of NATO, a military alliance between the US, Canada, and Western Europe
D. An airlift in response to a Soviet blockade of West Berlin.
4. The Cold War was accompanied by fear of Communism at home:
A. This fear is known as McCarthyism after Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy
B. McCarthy contended that Communists had infiltrated the US government
C. Fear of Communist subversion was intensified by 2 cases of apparent espionage:
D. A former high-ranking State Department official, Alger Hiss, supplied Soviet agents with classified US documents
E. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg apparently passed atomic secrets to Soviet agents
F. In 1954, the Senate voted to condemn McCarthy for conduct unbecoming to his office. He had made reckless charges of Communist subversion of the US military.

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