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Sunday, January 5, 2014

Rewind: EVERY Overview and ALL Vocab from the 1st Semester!

USH; Unit 1 Chapter 1 - THE NEW NATION (Prehistory-1791)
OVERVIEW: To understand America's diverse culture, it is necessary to know about the many different people and events that have contributed to the development of the US. In this chapter you will learn about how America came to be settled 1st by Native Americans and later by European colonists. You will also learn how colonists won their independence from Great Britain and founded the USA.
VOCAB: Feudalism, Paleo-Indians, Agricultural Revolution, Maya, Aztec, Inca, Crusades, Renaissance, Christopher Columbus, Hernan Cortes, Ferdinand Magellan, Pilgrims, Mayflower Compact, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, Middle Passage, Stamp Act, Intolerable Acts, George Washington, Thomas Paine, Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Treaty of Paris, Republicanism, Depression, Electors, Federalism, Supremacy Clause, Elastic Clause, Articles of Confederation, Constitutional Convention, Benjamin Franklin, Federalists, Antifederalists
USH; Unit 1 Chapter 2 - THE EXPANDING NATION (1789-1861)
OVERVIEW: By 1789 all 13 states except Rhode Island had ratified the new plan of government developed at the Constitutional Convention. Newly elected government officials—the POTUS and the members of Congress—set out to put the Constitution into action. In this chapter you will learn how the new nation faced many challenges in its 1st 80 years. Finally, you will learn why the nation began to break apart.
VOCAB: Cabinet, Free Enterprise, Strict Construction, Loose Construction, Judicial Review, Bill of Rights, Alexander Hamilton, Alien and Sedition Acts, John Marshall, Marbury v. Madison, Louisiana Purchase, Nationalism, Nullification Crisis, Strike, Nativism, Cotton Gin, Monroe Doctrine, Henry Clay, Missouri Compromise, Andrew Jackson, Democratic Party, Trail of Tears, Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman, 2nd Great Awakening, Dorothea Dix, Frederick Douglass, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Seneca Falls Convention, Susan B. Anthony, Manifest Destiny, Popular Sovereignty, TX Revolution, Mexican Cession, Compromise of 1850, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Stephen Douglas, Kansas-Nebraska Act, John Brown, Republican Party, Dred Scott Decision, Abraham Lincoln, Confederacy (Confederate States)
USH; Unit 1 Chapter 3 - THE CIVIL WAR (1861-1865)
OVERVIEW: Tensions between the North and the South continued to grow throughout the 1850s. The crisis came to a head when a (R), Abraham Lincoln, was elected POTUS in 1860. In this chapter you will learn how the large population and industrial power of the North gave the Union better resources to fight the long and bloody Civil War that ensued. Although the South's defensive strategy and superior military leadership enabled it to win many of the war's early battles, the Confederacy was unable to overcome the Union forces.
VOCAB: Civil War, Bleeding Kansas, Secession, Abolition, Popular Sovereignty, Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Roger Taney, Dred Scott, Stephen Douglas, Henry Clay, William Lloyd Garrison, Nat Turner, Sojourner Truth, Conscription, Habeas Corpus, Anaconda Plan, US Sanitary Commission, Clara Barton, Harriet Tubman, Ulysses S. Grant, Jefferson Davis, Denmark Vesey, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, George Pickett, Robert Gould Shaw, Emancipation Proclamation, Battle of Antietam, War of Attrition, Total War, Battle of Gettysburg, Gettysburg Address, Appomattox Courthouse
USH; Unit 1: Chapter 4 – RECONSTRUCTION (1865-1900)
OVERVIEW: Beginning with the framing of the Constitution and continuing through the Civil War, slavery caused political tension in the US. Although many Americans agreed that slavery was incompatible with democratic ideals, it took a bloody civil war to finally bring an end to slavery. The war's end, however, raised a new challenge: how to bring emancipated slaves into a free society. In this chapter you will learn how the nation struggled to define the rights of freed African Americans, while also seeking to restore the southern states to the Union.
VOCAB: Reconstruction, 13th Amendment, Amnesty, Black Codes, John Wilkes Booth, Andrew Johnson, Civil Rights Act of 1866, 14th Amendment, 15th Amendment, Freedmen’s Bureau, Reconstruction Acts, Ulysses S. Grant, Thaddeus Stevens, KKK, Panic of 1873, Enforcement Acts, Civil Rights Act of 1875, Carpetbaggers, Scalawags, Redeemers, Compromise of 1877 and Rutherford B. Hayes, Sharecropping, Crop-Lien System, Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests, Segregation, Jim Crow Laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, Madame CJ Walker, Booker T. Washington, Ida B. Wells, Lynching
USH; Unit 2; Chapter 5 – THE WESTERN CROSSROADS (1860-1910)
OVERVIEW: The resolution of the Oregon boundary dispute in 1846 and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 reshaped the US. These treaties opened up more than 1 million square miles of western land for US settlement. In this chapter you will learn that Americans who settled in the West came for many reasons. American Indians suffered the consequences of this settlement. They endured continued conflict and violence as non-Indians established farms and ranches in the lands of the American West.
VOCAB: Dawes Act, Sod Houses, Bonanza Farm(s), Homestead Act, Pacific Railway Act, Morrill Act, US Dept. of Agriculture, Long Drives, Railhead, Open Range, Barbed Wire, TX Longhorn, Patio Process, Hydraulic Mining, Hard-Rock Mining, Comstock Lode, William H. Seward
USH; Chapter 6 – THE 2ND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (1865-1905)
OVERVIEW: During the 1st half of the 1800s, both the US population and westward settlement expanded rapidly. This growth was fueled by immigration, industrialization, and the economic opportunities of the frontier. After the Civil War these trends accelerated even more. In this chapter you will learn about the many inventions that began a new age of industrialization in the US. Poor working conditions in the new industries, however, led many American workers to organize unions to improve their daily lives.
VOCAB: Patent, Copyright, Public Domain, Fair Use, Transcontinental Railroad, Trunk Lines, Telegraph, Bessemer Process, George Westinghouse, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Alva Edison, Capitalism, Communism, Social Darwinism, Corporation, Trust, Monopoly, Vertical Integration, Horizontal Integration, Philanthropy, Horatio Alger Jr., Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt, George Pullman, Robber Barons, Tycoon, Anarchists, Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Great Upheaval, Haymarket Riot, Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, Skilled Workers, Unskilled Workers, Terence V. Powderly, Eugene V. Debs
USH; Chapter 7 – THE TRANSFORMATION OF AMERICAN SOCIETY (1865-1910)
OVERVIEW: During the late 1800s many innovative thinkers made significant scientific discoveries, inventions, and advances in technology. These breakthroughs, along with developments in American business practices, launched a new age of industrialization. In this chapter you will learn about the impact of new immigrants on these industries and on American life. Immigration and industrialization led to rapid growth in US cities. This growth generated a series of broad transformations in the daily lives of nearly all Americans.
VOCAB: Old Immigrants, New Immigrants, Steerage, Benevolent Societies, Immigration Restriction League, Chinese Exclusion Act, Grover Cleveland, 2nd Industrial Revolution, Skyscrapers, Mass Transit, Nouveau Riche, Conspicuous Consumption, Tenements, Suburbs, Social Gospel, Settlement Houses, Jane Addams, Compulsory Education Laws, Yellow Journalism, Vaudeville, Ragtime, John Dewey, Walter Camp, James Naismith, Abner Doubleday, Scott Joplin
THINK ABOUT THIS:
  • Americans often think of their country as a land of immigrants, but in fact attitudes toward immigration have been mixed. 
  • Especially in times of economic hardship, many have opposed immigration.
  • But immigrants greatly contributed to the richness of American culture.
  • Also, there are internal immigrants who move from one part of the country to another.

USH; Chapter 8 – POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE (1865-1900)
OVERVIEW: Life for many Americans changed dramatically during the late 1800s. Rapid industrialization and new opportunities drew increasing numbers of people to US cities. In this chapter you will learn that politics in the US during the late 1800s was frequently corrupt. These episodes of corruption inspired new efforts to restore honest government. Meanwhile, rural Americans grew more politically active, attempting to improve the conditions of their daily lives.
VOCAB: Political Machines, Political Bosses, Graft, Kickbacks, Alexander Sheppard, James Pendergast, and George Washington Plunkitt, William Marcy Tweed, Thomas Nast, Tammany Hall, Gilded Age, Mugwumps, Stalwarts, Half-Breeds, Pendleton Civil Service Act, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, Graduated Income Tax, Gold Standard, National Grange, Populist Party, Interstate Commerce Act, Bland-Allison Act, Sherman Silver Purchase Act, William McKinley, William Jennings Bryan
USH; Unit 3: Chapter 9 – THE AGE OF REFORM (1897-1920)
OVERVIEW: Although industrial development during the Gilded Age generated great profits for some Americans, it also created many problems. Moreover, politics became increasingly corrupt as leaders sought financial gains. Populists, ministers, and reformers such as Jane Addams tried to bring the nation's attention to those Americans left out of economic prosperity. In this chapter you will learn about the large-scale reform movements that swept the US at the beginning of the 1900s and the effects that these movements had on American society.
VOCAB: Progressivism, Muckrakers, McClure’s Magazine, Lincoln Steffens, Ida Tarbell, Freedom of Contract, Closed Shop, Open Shop, Socialism, Triangle Shirtwaiste Fire, Mueller v. Oregon, Louis D. Brandeis, Samuel Gompers, Industrial Workers of the World, Americanization, Prohibition, Temperance Movement, Reform, Women’s Christian Temperance Movement, NAACP, 18th Amendment, Billy Sunday, W.E.B. Du Bois
USH; Unit 3 - Chapter 10 – PROGRESSIVE POLITICIANS (1900-1920)
OVERVIEW: During the early 1900s many Americans took a new interest in reforming society. Now known as the Progressive Era, this time period was marked by great optimism and faith in scientific efficiency. Progressive reformers set out to conquer such negative effects of industrialization and rapid urbanization as unsafe working conditions, long hours, low wages, and slum housing. In this chapter you will learn about the successes and failures of progressive politicians, including POTUS’ Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson.
VOCAB: Direct Primary, Initiative, Referendum, Recall, Secret Ballot, 17th Amendment, Wisconsin Idea, Arbitration, Reclamation, Theodore Roosevelt, Gifford Pinchot, Square Deal, Elkins Act, Hepburn Act, Upton Sinclair and The Jungle, Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act, National Park Service, Dollar Diplomacy, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson, 16th Amendment, Progressive Party, Ballinger-Pinchot Affair, Mann-Elkins Act, Payne-Aldrich Tariff, New Freedom, Federal Reserve Act, Clayton Antitrust Act, Federal Trade Commission, Adamson Act, Keating-Owen Child Labor Act, 19th Amendment, Suffrage
The early 20th century was one of this country’s eras of reform.  What were the major goals of the reformers?
1) Democratizing American society by having senators elected and by giving women the vote
2) Regulating the economy to protect consumers
3) Safeguarding the natural environment
4) Regulating the economy (through the Federal Reserve System) and limiting the power of corporations
5) Replacing a tariff with an income tax
USH; Unit 3 - Chapter 11 – AMERICA AND THE WORLD (1898-1917)
OVERVIEW: After recovering from the Civil War, the US resumed its economic growth and westward expansion. Creating tremendous wealth for some and jobs for many, the Industrial Revolution transformed the nation. In this chapter you will learn how the US established itself as a world power. After more than a century of following George Washington's advice and avoiding foreign entanglements, the US became deeply involved in events abroad, from nearby Cuba and Mexico to distant China and Japan.
VOCAB: Imperialism, Subsidy, Spheres of Influence, Open Door Policy, Boxer Rebellion, The Bayonet Constitution, Kalakaua, Liliuokalani, Sanford B. Dole, Henry Cabot Lodge, Alfred Thayer Mahan, John Hay, USS Maine, Rough Riders, Teller Amendment, Philippine Government Act, Jones Act of 1916, Protectorate, Roosevelt Corollary, Dollar Diplomacy, Platt Amendment, Foraker Act, Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, Mexican Revolution, Porfirio Diaz, Emiliano Zapata, Francisco Madero, Victoriano Huerta, Venustiano Carranza, Francisco “Pancho” Villa, John J. Pershing
USH; Unit 3 - Chapter 12 – WORLD WAR 1 (WW1; 1914-1918)
OVERVIEW: During the 1800s several empires dominated Europe and much of the world. Nations scrambled to gain control of colonies and their natural resources to fuel the Industrial Revolution. European nations built up strong rivalries, which ultimately helped lead to war. In this chapter you will learn how the US tried to remain neutral when war swept Europe. Once the US joined the Allied cause in 1917, the government quickly mobilized the economy and built public support for the war.
VOCAB: Militarism, No-Man’s-Land, Trench Warfare, Franz Ferdinand, Gavrilo Princip, Allied Powers, Central Powers, Sussex Pledge, Convoy System, Zimmermann Note, Selective Service Act, Food Administration, War Industries Board, National War Labor Board, Committee on Public Information, Committee on Public Information, Great Migration, Espionage Act, Sedition Act, Herbert Hoover, Woodrow Wilson, Big 4, Bolsheviks, Reparations, 14 Points, League of Nations, Treaty of Versailles

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