USH; Chapter 13 - A TURBULENT DECADE (1919-1929)
OVERVIEW: WW1 affected the daily lives of many Americans. The government mobilized industry to produce necessary goods for US soldiers and their allies, who finally achieved victory against the Central Powers in 1918. During the war the US government suppressed political protests. In this chapter you will learn about the changes in American life after the war. Although prosperity returned to the US, everyone living there did not enjoy economic benefits and political freedom.
VOCAB: Demobilization, Seattle General Strike, Boston Police Strike, United Mine Workers Strike, Red Scare, Palmer Raids, Sacco and Vanzetti, Mergers, Feminists, Equal Rights Amendment, Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act, American Plan, Teapot Dome Scandal, Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Marcus Garvey, Pan Africanism, Black Nationalism, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, Immigration Act of 1924, Census
UNDERSTANDING CHAPTERS 13-15:
1. A CULTURAL CIVIL WAR over issues of RACE, IMMIGRATION, and WOMEN’S RIGHTS and efforts of AFRICAN AMERICANS and others to respond to the KKK and similar groups
2. The rapid growth of a CONSUMER CULTURE and of MASS ENTERTAINMENT (CH. 14)
3. The roots of the GREAT DEPRESSION started here… (CH. 15) … So how did these issues occur?
The end of WW1 was accompanied by a lot of upheaval in the US. What issues troubled the country?
1) Organized labor 2) Radicalism
3) Race 4) Women’s status
Some people opposed the changes that were occurring. Who were these people and what did they want?
1) Ku Klux Klan 2) Opponents of the teaching of evolution
3) Opponents of immigration 4) Opponents of alcohol
END OF WW1 INTO POST-WW1 DEMOBILIZATION IN THE US:
How was ratification of the Versailles Treaty a struggle for Wilson?
- The treaty needed a 2/3 majority vote in the US Senate to be ratified
- The Republican controlled Senate objected to the US joining the League of Nations
- The old Washington-avoid-foreign-alliances thing
- The league might lead to violations of the Monroe Doctrine
- Opponents to the treaty
- The Irreconcilable faction: would not support US membership in the League in any way
- The reservationists faction: Larger group headed by Senate majority leader Henry Cabot Lodge
- Would agree to the Treaty if Wilson accepted compromises
- Wilson refused to compromise over the treaty
- Wilson believed he could rally public support for the treaty
- Wilson began a cross-country train tour in support of the treaty
- On September 25, 1919 President Wilson suffered a massive stroke
- The Senate voted twice on the Treaty of Versailles, rejecting it both times
- The US eventually signed a separate treaty with Germany
- The US never signed the Versailles Treaty
- The US never joined the League of Nations
What postwar problems did the US face after WWI?
- 4 million soldiers had to be reintegrated into civilian life
- Difficulty finding jobs
- Loss of jobs for women and African Americans
- Economic recession
- The US experienced an economic boom during the war due to increased war production
- Increased production meant an increase in jobs and economic growth
- The end of the war meant the end of war production, jobs, and growth
- By 1920 10% of the US workforce was unemployed (Recession)
- During the war US farmers increased production to supply the Allies with food
- When European farm goods reentered the market, food prices dropped due to overproduction
What was the post-WWI “Red Scare”?
- Anti-Communist hysteria fueled by the Communist takeover of Russia and the growth of socialist organizations in the US
- The Palmer Raids
- “There can be no nice distinctions drawn between the theoretical ideals of radicals and their actual violations of our national laws.” - A. Mitchell Palmer
- A series of bombings in the US was blamed on radicals/anarchists dedicated to communist revolution in the US
- AG A. Mitchell Palmer established a special office under the control of J. Edgar Hoover to gather information on radicals in the US
- From Nov. 1919 to Jan. of 1920 the “Palmer Raids” produced the arrest of 6,000 people
- Most people arrested by the Palmer Raids were foreign born and 500 of them were deported
How did race relations worsen after WWI?
- The “great migration” of African Americans north during WWI led to a rise in racial tensions in the north
- Whites resented the increased competition for jobs and housing
- Race Riots
- In the south returning African Americans soldiers faced an increase in racial violence and lynching
*Information in the overviews from various Post-WW1 overviews online (Wikipedia, Digital History, and others)