OVERVIEW: Public frustration with the federal gov grew in the 1970s as the Watergate Scandal broke, the energy crisis emerged, and the economy continued to weaken. Jimmy Carter (D) was elected POTUS with a promise to reform gov. Numerous obstacles, including a worsening economic situation, hampered his presidency. In this chapter you will learn how Ronald Reagan (R) was elected in 1980 and set out to reform the economy and foreign relations.
SECTION 1: REAGAN’s 1st TERM
*(Don’t Write) People lost faith in Carter and blamed him for the country’s woes. This backlash would see Reagan (former actor and CA Governor) come to power in 1980. The rise against a separation of church and state would have its beginnings in this decade. Economic policies, known as AUSTERITY (i.e. deep cutting of gov programs), would have their seeds planted under Reagan. Critics will argue that reducing the size and influence of gov, lessening regulations, and cuts to social programs (all favored by Reagan) might have some short-term success (which we saw in the early 80s), but long-term many more get hurt (lead by the poor and minorities, as well as the 1987 Stock Market Crash, increased homelessness, job loss, and increasing wealth disparity).
AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI: Militant Islamic leader in Iran; Iran Hostage Crisis came under him; Overthrew previous gov.; Criticized for harsh tactics and human rights violations.
IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS: (1979-81) 52 Americans were held hostage in the US Embassy in Tehran, Iran. This was the final downfall of Carter’s admin. The hostages were released moments after Reagan is sworn in.
RONALD REAGAN: (R #40; 1980-88); Defeated Jimmy Carter, who had fallen out of favor with the US public; Oldest elected @69; “The Great Communicator,” Increased: Military spending, focus on Latin America-(fearing that it would fall under SU control), Religion in gov decisions; Decreased: Regulations, taxes, gun control, abortion access.
SUPPLY-SIDE ECONOMICS: Theory stating that tax cuts would lead to increased economic activity and tax revenues, and therefore to a balanced budget; AKA Trickle-Down Economics. Critics argue that this results in a growing discrepancy between the haves and have-nots.
REAGANOMICS: Reagan’s economic program; Based on large tax cuts to encourage business investment.
NEW RIGHT: Various conservative voters’ groups that grew in strength during the 1980s; Reagan’s strongest supporters; Conservatives/Evangelicals will play a bigger and bigger role in politics, namely in the (R) Party.
MORAL MAJORITY: Conservative religious political org. Along w/ Reagan supported: school prayer, strong defense, free-market policies; Opposed to abortion, gun control, and busing to achieve racial balance in schools.
JERRY FALWELL: Leader of the Moral Majority; Felt that the nation was facing numerous problems b/c many had turned away from the “Christian” values that founded this nation. Inspired many others religious leaders that we see active in politics today.
STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE: (SDI) Plan for a defense system in space to protect the US from Soviet missiles; Never actually implemented. Nicknamed “Star Wars” and was heavily criticized.
SANDINISTAS: Revolutionary political party in Nicaragua that overthrew a pro-US dictator in 1979, causing US resentment.
CONTRAS: Anti-Sandinista rebel army in Nicaragua that was supported by the Reagan admin. Comes from the Spanish term “contrarevolucionarios.”
SECTION 2: REAGAN’S 2ND TERM
*(Don’t Write) Many changes highlighted Reagan’s 2nd term including more women in gov, a weakening economy (including the stock market crashing in 1987), a huge political scandal, and changing relations w/ the Soviets.
GERALDINE FERRARO: NY Rep.; Walter Mondale’s (Dem. Opponent of Bush) VP pick; 1st woman to run on a major-party pres. ticket.
SANDRA DAY O’CONNOR: 1st woman to serve on the SCOTUS; Conservative but usually votes w/ the Liberals.
GRAMM-RUDMAN-HOLLINGS ACT: (1985) Law that required the gov to cut spending when the deficit grows above a certain level. Caused huge federal deficits. L
INSIDER TRADING: Use of confidential financial information by stockbrokers for personal gain; Stock Market crashed in 1987. People in the gov are exempt from these rules. L
S&L CRISIS: Economic collapse in the savings and loan AND banking industries caused by risky loans in the 1980s.
IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR: 1980s scandal in which the Reagan admin. secretly sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of US hostages in Lebanon and then used the profits from the sale to fund the Contras in Nicaragua after Congress had forbidden direct gov aid.
OLIVER NORTH: Lt. Colonel who funneled the $ in the Iran-Contra Affair.
MIKHAIL GORBACHEV: Soviet leader (1985); Easing, for a few, of Cold War tensions came under him through…
GLASNOST: Soviet policy (1980s) that promoted political openness and freedom of expression; Went along w/ a dramatic easing of Cold War tensions.
PERESTROIKA: Soviet policy (1980s) that initiated political and economic reforms.
INTERMEDIATE-RANGE NUCLEAR FORCES TREATY: (INF-1987) Treaty signed by POTUS Reagan and Soviet leader Gorbachev; Eliminated all medium-range nuclear weapons from Europe.
SECTION 3: BUSH AND 80’s LIFE
*(Don’t Write) The late 80s were heralded by issues with space exploration, technology, sexuality, disease, wars, global warming concerns, HIV/AIDS fears, and a changing political landscape. People born in the 80s and 90s are known as Millennials. Foreign issues and politics, in the US and the Middle East, took center stage during the 80s.
CHRISTA MCAULIFFE: Social Studies teacher picked to be a civilian passenger on the Challenger.
CHALLENGER: US space shuttle that exploded, on live TV with millions watching, in 1986 after takeoff, killing all 7 crewmembers.
AIDS: (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) Often-fatal disease that forces the body’s immune system to shut down, making it easier for a person to contract other illnesses. Came to the forefront w/ Magic Johnson
JESSE JACKSON: African American leader; Ran w/ “Rainbow Coalition” and turned out the largest turnout of African American voters in a primary (at the time).
MICHAEL DUKAKIS: (D) challenger to Bush; Viewed as weak on crime from a series of TV ads associating him with convicted killer Willie Horton (the original attack ad).
LLOYD BENTSEN: (D) TX Senator who was Dukakis’ running mate.
GEORGE H.W. BUSH: (R #41; 1988-1992); Reagan’s VP; Former CIA Director; Most famous for saying, “Read my lips, no new taxes” and then raised taxes.
DAN QUAYLE: (R); Bush’s VP and a former Senator; Could not spell potato.
COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES: (CIS) An alliance formed by many of the former Soviet republics in Dec. 1991.
OPERATION DESERT STORM: (1991) UN invasion led by the US to make Iraq withdraw from Kuwait. The Persian Gulf War was the 1st war won using almost entirely high tech weapons (Tomahawk missiles, stealth fighters, and GPS). This war also marked the start of women taking more roles in war (it would be 2012 before women were allowed in combat).
NORMAN SCHWARZKOPF: Commander of US forces during Operation Desert Storm.
COLIN POWELL: Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; 1st African American Secretary of State (under George W. Bush). Extremely respected. On his testimony to the UN, the US goes to war in Iraq and Afghanistan after 9/11.
CLARENCE THOMAS: Conservative SCUTOS justice (nominated by Bush), whose brutal confirmation hearings (accused of sexual harassment by a former coworker) paved the way for the partisan politics we see today. Known for rarely saying anything during cases.
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT: (ADA-1990) Law that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, transportation, telephone services, and public buildings.
WAR ON DRUGS: Bush’s organized effort to end drug smuggling and illegal drug use. This effort was led by Bush’s arrest of Manuel Noriega, dictator, and drug smuggler, in Panama.
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS: Yes, write these ALL!!!
1. (Sect. 1) Why did voters choose Ronald Reagan over Jimmy Carter in the 1980 pres. election? Voters chose Reagan over Carter b/c Reagan promised solutions to problems that Carter seemed unable to solve.
2. (Sect. 1) How did the Reagan admin. fight the Cold War in the early 1980s? Reagan fought the Cold War with increased military spending and a tougher stance towards the Soviet Union.
3. (Sect. 2) Why did public confidence in the economy begin to weaken in the late 1980s? Public confidence in the economy began to weaken because of a rising deficit, 1987 stock market crash, and the S&L crisis.
4. (Sect. 2) What were the main issues in the Iran-Contra affair? The main issues in the Iran-Contra Affair were the sale of weapons to Iran, illegal funding of the Contras, and Reagan’s role in the scandal.
5. (Sect. 3) What changed in American society in the 1980s? Economic boom, new computer technology, and AIDS all changed American Society in the 1980s.
6. (Sect. 3) What led to the Persian Gulf War? Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait led to the Persian Gulf War.
1. (Economics) What effects did Reagan’s economic policies have on the country? Reagan’s economic policies increased the wealth of many Americans but also led to cuts in social programs and decreased gov regulation.
2. (Global Relations) How did Reagan’s approach to defense change the Cold War? Reagan’s hard-line stance and emphasis on buildup of nuclear weapons led to increased Cold War tensions.
3. (Science, Technology, and Society) How did computer technology change in the 1980s? Computer tech changed in the 1980s with personal computers (PCs) became widely available and virtual reality (VR) was invented.
1. (Summarizing) In what ways did participation in the democracy process in the 1980s reflect our national identity? More and more people were tired of liberal policies and the increased participation of conservative (R) voters led to the election of conservative politicians.
2. (Comparing and Contrasting) How was the Iran-Contra Affair both similar to and different from the Watergate Scandal? The Iran-Contra Affair is similar to the Watergate Scandal in that both involved the misuse of government power and money; The Iran-Contra Affair was different from the Watergate scandal in that Nixon was forced out of office b/c of Watergate, whereas Reagan was never implicated the secret payments.
3. (Evaluating) What contributions did George H. W. Bush make as POTUS? George H.W. Bush presided over the US victory in the Cold War and the Persian Gulf War and made a positive impact on the war on drugs.
4. (Analyzing Information) What role did the US play in ending the Cold War? The US slowed the arms race and participated through the INF Treaty in peace talks with Gorbachev in helping ease Cold War tensions.
5. (Making Predictions) How did the breakup of the Soviet Union present new challenges to the US? Conflicts between the former Soviet-controlled countries began to break out presented new challenges to the US.