SECTION 1: THE NIXON YEARS
COURTING THE SILENT MAJORITY Pg. 740
Much of Nixon's support came from MIDDLE-class voters weary of the social unrest of the 1960s. Nixon called these people the SILENT Majority—"the forgotten Americans, the non-shouters, the non-demonstrators." He won their votes by pledging to restore law and ORDER and to cut back (D) programs.
REFORMING WELFARE Pg. 740-741
Nixon wanted to cut GREAT SOCIETY programs that had failed to significantly decrease poverty in the US. He believed that liberal policies had created a complex, inefficient system that made people dependent on the federal gov. The welfare system, which had grown from some 5.9 million recipients in 1960 to some 12.8 million in 1970, came under particular attack. "From the 1st days of my administration I wanted to get rid of the costly failures of the Great Society," Nixon later recalled. "Welfare reform was my highest domestic priority."
Under the existing welfare system, much of the aid for POOR families was in the form of services such as Medicaid and nutrition programs. Nixon proposed replacing this system with the Family ASSISSTANCE Plan (FAP), which would guarantee families a minimum income. Under the plan, adults able to work would have to accept job training or work assignments. The federal gov would assume most of the welfare costs then borne by the states. Supporters of the FAP argued that giving money directly to families would reduce welfare programs and the waste that went with them. Critics charged that such direct aid would make poor families even more DEPENDENT on the federal gov.
The SENATE ultimately voted down the FAP. Nixon also proposed a system of revenue sharing called New Federalism. Under this system, the federal gov gave BLOCK grants to the states. Local leaders then decided how to use this $.
SEEKING SOUTHERN SUPPORT Pg. 741
Nixon also planned NOT TO ask for any new CR legislation. This decision was part of his SOUTHERN Strategy—a plan to woo conservative southern white voters away from the (D) Party. As part of this approach, Nixon DELAYED pressuring southern schools to desegregate. When the SCOTUS ruled in 1971 that BUSING could be used to integrate schools, Nixon opposed the ruling.
When CHIEF JUSTICE Earl Warren retired in 1969, Nixon appointed a conservative justice, Warren Burger, to head the Court. The Senate rejected 2 other Nixon nominees, both from southern states. Nixon used these rejections to win SOUTHERN support. He complained, "The real reason for their rejection was their legal philosophy . . . and also the accident of their birth, the fact that they were born in the South." The president eventually appointed 3 CONSERVATIVE justices: Harry Blackmun, Lewis Powell, and William Rehnquist.
TACKLING THE ECONOMY Pg. 741-742
Reversing the LIBERAL policies of the 1960s was not the only challenge Nixon faced. He also had to manage a faltering ECONOMY. The US had enjoyed an economic boom during the 1960s, but the economy had begun to show signs of trouble by the time Nixon took office. Heavy gov spending on social programs and on the VIETNAM War had contributed to a recession and growing unemployment. Normally, when unemployment is high, inflation is low. Yet when Nixon took office, both inflation and unemployment rose. This combination of rising unemployment and inflation is called stagflation.
In Aug. 1971 Nixon took a drastic step to curb INFLATION by imposing temporary freezes on PRICES, RENTS, and WAGES. This action surprised many people, since (R) typically opposed such action. Labor leaders feared that wage freezes would hurt those earning the least: "Robin Hood in reverse, because it robs from the poor and gives to the rich." Nixon, however, was bowing to political reality. (R/D) Party leaders had started referring to the nation's economic troubles as the result of "Nixonomics." Nixon hoped that taking action on the ECONOMY would help him win the upcoming pres. election. The strategy worked. Inflation slowed, and was re-elected in 1972. However, when he eased controls, inflation shot up again. In 1974 the inflation rate topped 12%.
THE ENERGY CRISIS Pg. 742
During the 1970s rising OIL costs became a major cause of inflation and consumer worry. Since WW2, the US economy had grown increasingly dependent on FOREIGN oil. By 1973 Americans consumed 2X as much oil as they produced.
PRICE HIKES Pg. 743
In June 1973 Nixon warned the nation that the "supply of domestic energy resources available to us is not keeping pace with our ever growing demand." That Oct. several ARAB nations cut off oil shipments to the US as punishment for the US support of Israel in a new Arab-Israeli war. In Dec. the ORG of PETROLEUM Exporting COUNTRIES (OPEC)—a group founded in 1960 by 5 oil-producing countries that wanted to increase oil prices—announced a price hike. A barrel of oil that had sold for about $3.00 in the summer of 1973 cost $11.65 in Dec. 1973, an increase of almost 400%.
The oil embargo and price hike triggered an energy CRISES in the US during the winter of 1973–74. The cost of ELECTRICITY, GAS, and heating oil soared, causing severe hardship in some parts of the country.
The ENERGY crisis also created a great deal of anxiety. [There were] "signs of panic" among Americans who were "growing fearful that the country has run out of energy." Across the nation motorists lined up at GAS stations to buy a few extra gallons. Lines sometimes stretched 4 miles long. The Arab nations lifted their embargo in March 1974, but the price of oil remained HIGH.
ENERGY POLICY Pg. 744
In response to the crisis, Nixon announced a program designed to make the US LESS dependent on foreign oil. He called for energy conservation and signed a bill that reduced the highway speed limit to 55 mph, thereby saving some 3.4 billion gallons of gas per year. He also signed a bill authorizing construction of a pipeline to transport oil SOUTH from Alaska.
The gov also supported replacing the use of FOSSIL fuels with NUCLEAR energy. Nuclear power was regarded as a cleaner and more economical source of energy because it did not burn fossil fuels. The Atomic Energy Commission predicted that nuclear power plants would generate 1/2 the nation's electrical power by the end of the century. By January 1974 there were 42 nuclear power plants in operation, and more than 160 new plants were under construction or in the planning stages. Yet many critics worried that the risks of a nuclear accident outweighed the benefits of nuclear power.
CLEANING UP THE ENVIRONMENT Pg. 744
Nixon took office at a time when Americans were becoming increasingly worried about the ENVIRONMENT. 2 events helped raise awareness of environmental issues. The 1st was a massive OIL spill off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA, in 1969. The 2nd was the 1st EARTH Day celebration in April 1970. Some 20 million Americans across the nation took part in Earth Day activities: "Unless we stop stealing, exploiting [taking advantage of] and ruining nature for our own gain, we will lose everything."
In 1970 Congress responded to growing public concern by creating the ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Agency (EPA), which had the power to enforce environmental laws. That same year, Congress passed 2 laws intended to limit pollution. The CLEAN AIR Act set air-quality standards and tough emissions guidelines for automakers. The WATER Quality Improvement Act required oil companies to pay some of the cleanup costs of oil spills. A 1972 act set limits on the discharge of industrial pollutants into water. To protect wildlife in danger of EXTINCTION, Congress passed the Endangered Species Act in 1973.
FOREIGN AFFAIRS UNDER NIXON Pg. 744
Although DOMESTIC issues demanded much of Nixon's attention, his main interest was FOREIGN affairs. Working closely with his national security adviser, Henry KISSINGER, Nixon sought to reshape US foreign policy.
THE NIXON-KISSINGER APPROACH Pg. 745
Nixon and Kissinger shared a belief in REALPOLITIK, or practical politics. According to this theory, national interests—rather than ideals such as democracy and human rights—should guide US foreign policy. Nixon believed that govs allied with the US SHOULD receive US support even if they sometimes violated human rights. The chief goal of the Nixon-Kissinger foreign policy was to establish a balance of power among the world's five major powers. These powers were CHINA, JAPAN, the SU, the US, and Western EUROPE.
THE CHINA VISIT Pg. 745
In keeping with his belief in realpolitik, Nixon sought to improve relations with the PEOPLE's Republic of China. By the 1970s China and the SU had become bitter enemies. Nixon followed the ancient military strategy that "the enemy of my enemy is my friend." He hoped that closer US ties with China would further DIVIDE the communist world.
In 1972 Nixon visited China. The 2 nations agreed to work together to promote peace in the PACIFIC region and to develop trade relations and cultural and scientific ties. Furthermore, Nixon promised the eventual withdrawal of US forces from Taiwan in order to lessen Chinese support for the NORTH Vietnamese. Although many conservative Americans were stunned by this move, it gave the president leverage to promote a new policy with the SU.
THE MOSCOW SUMMIT Pg. 745
In May 1972, just 3 months after visiting China, Nixon flew to Moscow for talks with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. The 2 agreed to promote trade and to cooperate on other issues of mutual concern.
Nixon and Brezhnev also signed a treaty LIMITING nuclear weapons. This treaty was the product of the STRATEGIC Arms LIMITATION Talks (SALT). It limited the number of intercontinental nuclear missiles—those capable of traveling long distances to other continents—each nation could have. Although the SALT treaty did not end the arms race, it was a small 1st step toward reducing the nuclear THREAT. As a result of the arms talks, the US and SU entered into a period of DETENTE—a lessening of military and diplomatic tensions between the countries.
TROUBLE SPOTS Pg. 746
In general, Nixon and Kissinger ignored countries that were not of direct strategic importance to the US. 1 exception was the (S) American nation of CHILE. In 1970 Chile elected Salvador Allende, a Socialist, as pres. Fearing that Allende planned to turn Chile into "another Cuba" allied with the SU, Nixon tried to topple his government. Nixon cut off AID to Chile and provided funds to Allende's opponents in the Chilean military. He also instructed the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to disrupt economic and political life in the country. In Sept. 1973 the Chilean army killed Allende and set up a PRO-American military dictatorship.
Shortly after the Chilean revolt, conflict erupted in the MIDDLE East. 6 years earlier, in 1967, Israel had defeated its Arab neighbors—Egypt, Jordan, and Syria—in the 6-Day War. However, the Arab states continued to harass Israel, and Israel continued to strike back: "the only time that Arab states were prepared to recognize the existence of . . . Israel was when they attacked it in order to wipe it out."
In Oct. 1973 Egypt and Syria invaded Israel hoping to recover land lost in the 6-Day War. The attack, which came on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, surprised the Israelis. They launched a counterattack, however, that threatened Egypt's capital, CAIRO. When the Soviets threatened to intervene by sending troops into the region, Nixon put all US forces on alert. A major military confrontation seemed possible. Within days, however, the superpowers persuaded the Arabs and Israelis to accept a cease-fire. Détente had survived a critical test, but prospects for a lasting PEACE in the Middle East remained in doubt.
SECTION 2: FROM WATERGATE TO FORD
CRISIS IN THE PRESIDENCY Pg. 747
During his 1st term in the WH, Nixon increasingly behaved as though there should be no limits on his POWER. He shifted much of the authority of the cabinet, whose appointments required Senate approval, to his personal WH staff. He also hid vital information from CONGRESS and the public.
DARK SECRETS Pg. 747
In 1971 Nixon ordered his staff to compile an "ENEMIES list" of critics who opposed his policies. After Daniel Ellsberg's leak of the PENTAGON Papers, Nixon told aide Charles Colson, "Do whatever has to be done to stop these leaks. . . I want it done, whatever the cost." The WH organized a secret unit called the plumbers that included former agents of the CIA and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The group was ordered to stop leaks and to carry out a variety of illegal actions in the name of "national security."
By 1972 these secret activities had grown into a full-scale effort to ensure Nixon's re-election. In June 5 men were caught breaking into the offices of the (D) National Committee in the WATERGATE office and apartment complex in Washington, DC. They were carrying wiretap equipment and other spying devices. It was soon discovered that these men were being paid w/ funds from Nixon's campaign organization, the COMMITTEE to Re-ELECT the President (CRP).
The WH denied any link to the break-in, calling it a "3rd-rate burglary." However, WASHINGTON Post reporters Bob WOODWARD and Carl BERNSTEIN kept digging for the truth. A high-level source known as Deep Throat informed them that WH officials and the CRP had hired 50 agents to sabotage the (D)’s chances in the 1972 election.
THE INVESTIGATION Pg. 748
Despite the Watergate break-in, Nixon won re-election in 1972 by a landslide. By the spring of 1973 both the executive and the legislative branches of gov were investigating the charges of criminal activities and the attempted cover-up. The SENATE led investigation into the Watergate scandal. 1 of the witnesses was James McCord, a former CIA agent who had taken part in the break-in. McCord admitted that top WH officials had helped plan. He linked the cover-up to "the very highest levels of the WH." His admissions broke the case wide open.
The BIGGEST bombshells were yet to come, however. In May 1973 live TV coverage of the Senate hearings began. Across the nation millions watched as Senators grilled witnesses and compiled evidence of official misconduct. Several top WH officials were eventually convicted in criminal trials and sent to jail. However, NIXON's role in Watergate remained unclear: "What did the [POTUS] know and when did he know it?" In June 1973 Nixon's former WH attorney JOHN DEAN provided the stunning answer. The POTUS had been directly involved in the cover-up.
THE NIXON RESIGNATION Pg. 749
Nixon denied Dean's charges. There seemed to be no way to prove that Dean was telling the truth. Then, in a surprising revelation, another witness testified that Nixon had secretly TAPE-RECORDED his CONVERSATIONS in the WH.
THE WHITE HOUSE TAPES Pg. 749
Investigators believed that the tapes would reveal the TRUTH about Watergate. A battle for CONTROL of the tapes followed. The Justice Department's SP, Archibald Cox, demanded that Nixon turn over the tapes. Nixon refused. Citing executive privilege, he claimed that releasing the tapes would endanger NATIONAL SECURITY.
In the midst of the controversy over the tapes, in Oct. 1973 VP SPIRO AGNEW was charged with income tax evasion. Agnew pleaded no contest and resigned on Oct. 10 in exchange for reduced punishment. Nixon nominated Gerald FORD, the (R) leader in the House of Representatives, for VP.
Shortly before Agnew's resignation, a federal judge ordered Nixon to release the WH tapes. Nixon refused. On Oct. 20, after SP Cox demanded that he obey the judge's order, Nixon ordered his AG to fire Cox. Both the AG and Deputy AG RESIGNed rather than obey the POTUS. The task of firing Cox fell to SG Robert Bork, who complied. This series of events, known as the Saturday Night Massacre, outraged the public and led to calls to impeach Nixon. In his own defense, Nixon declared, "People have the right to know whether or not their POTUS is a crook. Well, I am not a crook." Partly as a result of these events, in 1978 Congress authorized the appointment of investigators called independent counsels to conduct investigations into high CRIMES by top gov officials.
FINAL DAYS Pg. 749
Nixon eventually agreed to release SOME of the WH tapes, but he resisted turning over the ENTIRE set. Not until July 1974, when the SCOTUS REJECTED Nixon's argument of executive privilege, did Nixon abandon his efforts to keep the tapes. About the same time that the Court announced it’s ruling, the House Judiciary Committee held nationally televised debates on whether to impeach Nixon.
With the release of the Nixon tapes, Americans discovered the truth. Nixon had directed the Watergate cover-up and had authorized illegal activities. The House Judiciary Committee recommended that impeachment charges be brought against him. Facing almost certain IMPEACHMENT by the full House, Nixon finally accepted his fate. On Aug. 8, 1974, he told the nation: "I shall resign the presidency effective at noon tomorrow."
On Aug. 9, 1974, VP GERALD Ford was sworn in as the 38th POTUS. He then nominated Governor Nelson Rockefeller of NY for VP, and Congress confirmed his choice. For the 1st time in US history, both the POTUS and VP held office by APPOINTMENT, not election.
FORD TRIES TO REUNITE THE NATION Pg. 751
As leader of the (R)s in the House, Ford had won the respect of colleagues for his HONESTY and MODESTY. "I'm a Ford, not a Lincoln," he once joked. The new POTUS, however, lost much of the nation's goodwill just 1 month after taking office.
PARDON AND CLEMENCY Pg. 751
In Sept. 1974 Ford granted Nixon a FULL PARDON. He explained that if Nixon were put on trial, "ugly passions would again be aroused. . . . And the credibility [believability] of our free institutions of gov would again be challenged at home and abroad." Many found Ford's explanation unconvincing. It was suspected that the pardon had been agreed upon in advance in exchange for Nixon's resignation—a charge that Ford denied. Critics of the pardon argued that the full truth of Watergate would never emerge and pointed to the DOUBLE STANDARD that allowed Nixon to go free while his co-conspirators were punished. The result of the pardon, Ford's popularity fell. His approval rating dropped from 71% to 50%.
Ford took another controversial step 1 week later. He offered CLEMENCY, or official forgiveness, to Vietnam draft evaders. In exchange, they had to reaffirm their allegiance to the US and spend up to 2 years performing public service. Supporters of the Vietnam War believed that the offer was unfair to soldiers who had served their country. Meanwhile, just 19% of those eligible responded to the offer.
TROUBLES CONTINUE Pg. 751-752
Ford soon ran into other problems. In the Nov. 1974 congressional elections, (D)s gained 43 seats in the House and 3 in the Senate. Ford quickly encountered conflicts with the (D) majority that controlled Congress. He vetoed a number of social-welfare bills sponsored by (D)s. In all, Ford vetoed 66 bills during his brief term in office, more than any other POTUS had in such a short time.
As Ford's relations with CONGRESS worsened, he found it increasingly difficult to enact his policies. 1 of his main goals was to combat inflation, which was being fueled by the soaring cost of oil. Like Nixon, Ford hoped to curb inflation by cutting federal spending. In Oct. 1974 Ford asked Congress to cut some $4 billion from Nixon's proposed budget for the coming year and to increase corporate taxes. During his speech the POTUS sported a button that read WIN. He explained that it stood for Whip Inflation Now. Although some 100,000 Americans joined a voluntary organization supporting the Ford’s battle against inflation, Congress rejected his plan.
1 year later, in Oct. 1975, Ford told the nation, "Much of our inflation should bear a label, 'Made in Washington, DC.'" He recommended a combination of tax cuts and budget cuts. Congress approved the tax CUT but rejected a SPENDING cap. While the WH and Congress battled over economics, the US experienced an economic recession.
FORD’S FOREIGN POLICY Pg. 752
In foreign affairs, Ford continued many of Nixon's policies. The continuity between the administrations was reflected in his decision to retain Nixon's chief FOREIGN-POLICY adviser, Henry Kissinger, as SECRETARY of STATE.
ASIA Pg. 752
Ford tried to maintain US influence in (SE) Asia. Toward that end, he requested $722 million in military aid for Cambodia and (S) Vietnam. Opposed to additional military ventures in SE Asia, Congress rejected any military aid but did approve $300 million in humanitarian assistance. Then, in May 1975, Cambodian Communists seized the MAYAGUEZ an unarmed US cargo ship. The Ford admin. saw the seizure as an opportunity to prove that the POTUS could exercise leadership in a crisis. Kissinger urged, "Let's look ferocious." In response, Ford launched a military action intended to free the vessel and its crew. 41 Americans were killed in the effort to release about 40 crew members.
Ford later claimed that the Mayaguez incident "had an electrifying reaction as far as the American people were concerned." His job approval rating climbed 11 points after the rescue attempt. While some applauded Ford’s action, others criticized it as hasty and ill-timed. It was later discovered that the Mayaguez crew had already been RELEASED before the US attack began.
THE COLD WAR CONTINUES Pg. 753
During the mid-1970s AFRICA became a scene of CW conflict. Both NIXON and FORD had largely ignored Africa, but the outbreak of a civil war in Angola attracted US attention. The SU supported the POPULAR FRONT for the Liberation of Angola. Ford’s administration secretly provided millions in aid to an opposing group, the NATIONAL FRONT. When the PF seized control of Angola, Ford authorized further secret funding. However, Congress learned about the secret payments and ordered the POTUS to halt the operation. Ford complained, "This abdication [giving up] of responsibility by the majority of the Senate will have the greatest consequences for the long-term position of the US and for international order."
Despite the conflict in Africa, Ford tried to continue the policy of DETENTE toward the SU. US-SU relations grew increasingly strained, however: "Clearly, we must shed any lingering illusions we have that détente means the Russians have abandoned their determination to undermine [weaken] Western democracy."
1 source of conflict was the Soviet EMIGRATION policy, which did not allow JEWS and OPPONENTS of the gov to leave the country. When members of Congress criticized this policy, the Soviets canceled a proposed US-Soviet trade pact. Although Ford successfully negotiated an arms-limitation treaty during a summit meeting in the SU, the Senate failed to RATIFY it.
SECTION 3: CARTER: THE OUTSIDER
THE ELECTION OF 1976 Pg. 754
At the 1976 (R) National Convention, Ford narrowly won the party's nomination for POTUS over his more conservative challenger, Ronald Reagan of CA.
At the (D) convention, former GA governor Jimmy Carter won the nomination. Little known outside the (S), he ran as a Washington outsider untouched by Watergate. Central to his campaign was the idea of a new approach to gov. Carter promised, "I will never lie to you; I will never mislead you." He noted that he was a born-again Christian whose religious beliefs strongly shaped his politics. During the campaign Carter pledged to make the gov decent, honest, and trustworthy. The election was close, however. Carter won by capturing 297 electoral votes to Ford's 240.
On Inauguration Day the new POTUS and his family walked down PENNSYLVANIA Ave. to the WH instead of riding in a LIMO. Carter's decision to walk symbolized his desire to keep his admin. open to public view. During his presidency, he held several town meetings and radio and TV call-in sessions to keep in touch with the people.
CARTER’S DOMESTIC AGENDA Pg. 754-755
On his 1st full day in office, Carter announced an UNCONDITIONAL PARDON for most Vietnam-era draft evaders. This pardon went further than the clemency that had been offered by Ford. Although this gesture helped heal lingering divisions caused by the war, many Americans disagreed with it. Nonetheless, Carter's approval rating rose, reaching 75% after his 1st 100 days in office. Carter's popularity FELL, however, when he tried to tackle other problems facing the nation.
ECONOMIC POLICY Pg. 755
1 of Carter's 1st tasks as POTUS was to STIMULATE the economy, which was just beginning to emerge from a RECESSION. To revive the economy and create jobs, Carter enacted a series of economic measures, including a TAX CUT. His administration's policies helped reduce unemployment slightly, but they also fueled inflation, which reached 13.3% by 1979. To curb inflation, Carter called for voluntary wage and price controls, along with cuts in federal spending. "Hard choices are necessary if we want to avoid consequences that are even worse," he told the nation. His anti-inflation program, however, did not slow inflation and produced more unemployment. By the summer of 1980 the economy was once again in recession. Carter admitted, "There are no economic miracles waiting to be performed."
FACING THE ENERGY CRISIS Pg. 755
The high price of OIL was a major cause of the nation's economic woes. In April 1977 Carter introduced a complex energy proposal that won approval from the public. However, it did not do well in Congress, where significant changes were made to the bill. By the time the NATIONAL ENERGY ACT passed in 1978, few of Carter's original proposals remained intact.
Congress did create the Department of ENERGY in 1977 to oversee energy issues. Despite the efforts of the WH and Congress, however, world events continued to threaten the nation's energy supply. In Jan. 1979 a revolution in IRAN disrupted world oil shipments. A few months later, OPEC raised the price of oil 50%, leading to another US energy crisis. As gasoline supplies dwindled, many gas stations closed or reduced their hours. Tempers flared as frustrated drivers had to wait hours to fill their gas tanks. To promote energy conservation, Carter asked Americans to "honor the 55-mph speed limit, set thermostats no higher than 65 degrees and limit discretionary [nonessential] driving." Some people responded by driving less and by adopting other energy-saving measures such as installing solar heaters in their homes.
In the midst of the energy crisis another event dramatized the energy problems facing the US. In late March 1979 a nuclear REACTOR failed at the 3 MILE ISLAND power plant in PA. The accident nearly caused a catastrophic meltdown—the melting of the reactor's core. Some 100,000 people fled or were evacuated from the area. Despite grave public doubts about nuclear power after the 3 Mile Island accident, Carter argued that the nation needed NUCLEAR ENERGY. "We cannot simply shut down our nuclear power plants," he declared.
A LOSS OF FAITH Pg. 756
While Carter struggled with the NATION's problems, Americans lost confidence in his LEADERship. By March 1979 Carter's job approval rating had DROPPED considerably. He recognized that his presidency was in trouble. Most Americans did not respond favorably to Carter's discussion of the nation's spiritual emptiness. Within days Carter asked some of his cabinet members to RESIGN from office. This gave the American people the impression that the WH lacked leadership and was in DISORDER.
A NEW FOREIGN POLICY Pg. 757
While struggling with domestic issues, Carter charted a new course in foreign affairs. Rejecting the realpolitik of the Nixon presidency, he tried to inject MORAL PRINCIPLES into US foreign policy.
Carter's new approach to foreign policy was most evident in the area of human RIGHTS. He particularly supported the universal right to freedom from TORTURE and UNLAWFUL DETENTION. Declaring "our commitment to human rights must be absolute," Carter called for strong DIPLOMATIC and ECONOMIC pressure on countries whose leaders violated human rights. Not surprisingly, many dictatorships that limited the rights of their people strongly OPPOSED Carter's policy. Some diplomats had their doubts and warned that meddling in the domestic affairs of other countries could increase world TENSIONS.
THE PANAMA CANAL Pg. 757-758
Carter's position on the Panama Canal added to the CONTROVERSY over his human rights policy. Carter pushed for Senate ratification of the Panama Canal Treaties, which granted control of canal operations to Panama by the year 2000. Critics charged that Carter was giving away the canal. Ronald REAGAN condemned the treaties: "The fatal flaw is the risk they contain for our national security. . . . We're turning one of the world's most important waterways over to a country no one can believe." PUBLIC OPINION was divided. After a long and bitter political battle the Senate narrowly ratified the treaties in 1978. In LATIN America, where US control of the canal had long been a sore point, the treaties met with general approval. Carter's stance on the Panama Canal issue signaled a more flexible approach to relations with developing countries and hoped the approach would improve the image of the US and diminish the appeal of COMMUNISM.
AFRICA Pg. 758
In Africa, the US and the SU competed for influence among the continent's newly INDEPENDENT states. Carter tried to win allies among African nations by helping them resolve problems in their own way: "It is not a sign of weakness to recognize that we alone cannot dictate events elsewhere. It is rather a sign of maturity in a complex world." Many criticized IMPERIALISM in Africa, condemned (S) Africa's policy of Apartheid, in which the white minority ruled, and supported the black majority had few rights and supported black majority rule in Rhodesia—present-day Zimbabwe.
US-SOVIET RELATIONS Pg. 759
The (DECLINE) of détente that had taken place during the Ford admin. was continued during Carter's presidency. The US-Soviet relationship reached its LOW point in Dec. 1979. That month SU troops invaded Afghanistan to install a pro-SU leader. This invasion put SU troops within striking distance of major oil routes. Carter warned the SU to withdraw from Afghanistan. When they refused, he cut grain sales to the SU and announced a boycott of the 1980 Summer OLYMPICS in MOSCOW. Many Americans did not support the decision to boycott the Olympics. Congress also postponed the signing of a key US-Soviet ARMS-CONTROL treaty.
CARTER AND THE MIDDLE EAST Pg. 759
Carter's chief foreign-policy triumph was a Middle East PEACE ACCORD. Carter had taken office amid fears of more EGYPTIAN-ISRAELI armed conflict. Egyptian pres. Anwar Sadat and Israeli PM Menachem Begin met for peace talks, but those talks deadlocked.
In Sept. 1978 Carter met with Begin and Sadat at Camp DAVID, a retreat in northern MD for POTUS’. After several days of negotiations, the three leaders agreed on a framework for achieving peace in the Middle East. Their agreement became known as the Camp David ACCORDS. As a result of their efforts, Sadat and Begin shared the Nobel Peace Prize for 1978. The following year, they signed a formal peace treaty that ended a 30-year state of war between Egypt and Israel.
SECTION 4: LIFE IN THE 70s:
A CHANGING POPULATION Pg. 760
American society evolved during the 1970s, both on the NATIONAL level and within people's HOMES. IMMIGRATION from abroad and MIGRATION within the nation's borders changed the makeup and distribution of the population. Americans also experimented with new ways to raise families.
IMMIGRATION Pg. 760-761
During the 1970s the US population was greatly affected by continued immigration, mostly from ASIA and LATIN AMERICA. Most Latin American immigrants came from MEXICO, but many others came from the Caribbean. In 1980, nearly 120,000 Cubans fled their communist nation for the US, settling mainly in the MIAMI area.
Having opened the way for emigration after Nixon's visit, CHINA supplied some of the new Asian population in the US. Many of these Chinese immigrants were highly SKILLED and well-educated professionals fleeing political PERSECUTION. Despite their backgrounds, many found that discrimination and their difficulty speaking English prevented them from getting jobs that paid WELL.
Congress passed 2 new laws designed to aid such immigrants. The VOTING RIGHTS Act of 1975 required states and communities with a large number of non-English-speaking residents to print voting materials in various foreign languages. The BILINGUAL EDUCATION Act of 1974 increased funding for public schools to provide instruction to students in their primary languages while they learned English. Some critics opposed bilingual education, which they claimed slowed the adjustment of immigrants to American life. Yet there was little question that the US was becoming an increasingly multiCULTURAL society. Coping with new immigrants remained an important challenge for the country.
RISE OF THE SUNBELT Pg. 761
Americans MOVED more often in the 1970s than in previous decades. A growing # of Americans migrated from the N and the E, which some people mocked as the FrostBELT. They moved to the Sunbelt states of the S and the W. The Sunbelt states became increasingly important in national politics. This was particularly true of CA, FL, and TX, where MIGRATION caused population growth to outpace that of the rest of the nation.
Americans moved to the Sunbelt for many reasons. The successes of the CR movement of the 1960s made the (S) a more attractive region in which to live. Some 7 million people moved there between 1970 and 1978. Economic growth spurred by increased defense spending after WW2 had created more job opportunities in the region. Some migrants merely sought a warmer climate and a suburban lifestyle. Suburbs were more common and more spacious in the Sunbelt than in the NE because of the greater availability of land.
Improved TECHNOLOGY also encouraged population growth in the Sunbelt. AIR conditioning had become widely available, allowing people to tolerate the region's heat. Not everyone welcomed this development: "I hate air conditioning; it's a[n]. . . invention of the Yankees. If they don't like it hot, they can move back up N where they belong."
FAMILY LIFE Pg. 761-762
During the 1970s an increasing # of Americans chose to live ALONE. By the end of the decade some 22.5% of American households included just 1 person. Men and women waited longer to marry, driving up the average age at marriage. They were also more willing to leave unhappy marriages. This was in part because most states instituted laws that made divorces easier to obtain. The divorce rate continued to rise during the 1970s. There were 5.2 divorces per 1,000 Americans in 1980, up from 3.2 in 1960 and 2.5 in 1970. However, the increase in the divorce rate did not mean that Americans rejected the institution of marriage. In fact, remarriage rates also increased during this period.
Attitudes regarding family size also changed. In 1967 some 34% of women polled hoped to have 4 or more children. Four years later, just 15% of women polled expressed that desire. Not surprisingly, birthrates dropped sharply, averaging 2 births per woman. At the peak of the baby boom, the average family had three children. By 1980 that number had dropped to about 1.6 children per family.
By the end of the 1970s the idea of the "average family" had to be revised. Just 15% of American families matched the traditional image of a working father and a mother who stayed home to raise the children. During the 1970s the # of households with single women raising children rose to 8 million-an increase of 50% from the beginning of the decade. Single men raised children in some 1.5 million households.
AMERICAN ATTITUDES Pg. 762
Some observers cited the rising divorce rate as proof that Americans had become selfish and self-absorbed: the "ME DECADE." In reality, attitudes were varied and complex.
IMPROVING THE SELF Pg. 762
1 popular response to the political and economic turmoil of the 1970s was the human potential or SELF-ACTUALIZATION movement. Millions of Americans turned to activities such as yoga in an effort to improve their inner selves. Self-HELP books such as Looking Out for Number One and I'm OK—You're OK topped the best-seller lists. 1 former used-car salesman made about $9 million per year sponsoring seminars that helped people "get in touch with themselves."
Nontraditional religious groups also enjoyed increased popularity. The Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, teacher of a technique called TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION, claimed some 350,000 followers, including some well-known entertainers. The interest in new spiritual movements also had a dark side. In 1978 some 900 members of the People's Temple religious cult either killed themselves or were murdered at their compound in Jonestown, Guyana. Most of the victims were AMERICANS. The incident shocked the world and heightened concern about alternative religions.
Some Americans embraced the ideal of simple LIVING. Seeking to escape the tensions of modern life, many moved to rural areas where they could live closer to NATURE. Many gardened, an increasingly popular hobby.
FITNESS AND FOOD Pg. 762-763
The interest in self-improvement extended into the area of PHYSICAL fitness. Americans flocked to health spas and tennis clubs. Sales of running RUNNING boomed as millions took up running or jogging to stay fit. Jim Fixx's The Complete Book of Running sold some 620,000 copies in 1978. The # of smokers also began to decline.
The interest in fitness may have been sparked by concerns over health habits, particularly ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION and DIET. Liquor consumption rose significantly during the 1970s. The American diet also posed health risks. In 1977 a Senate report on nutrition concluded that an improved diet would reduce deaths from heart disease by 25%. The popularity of FAST FOOD contributed to Americans' poor eating habits. In 1972 the fast-food chain McDonald's passed the US Army to become the single largest provider of meals in the US. By 1977 some 35% of the money Americans spent on food went to pay for meals prepared outside the home.
ENTERTAINMENT Pg. 763
During the 1970s Americans spent more money than ever before on MUSIC and MOVIES. The entertainment industry underwent significant changes in its attempt to respond to consumer demands.
MOVIES Pg. 763-764
The 1970s brought a boom to the motion picture industry, which had grown slowly after the introduction of TV. BLOCKBUSTERS—movies with heavy advance promotion that opened on hundreds or thousands of screens across the country—accounted for much of the increased interest in movies. The most popular movie of the decade was JAWS directed by Steven Spielberg. [The film] was based on a novel about a shark that terrorizes a resort town. Released in 1975, it became the top-grossing movie of all time within just 78 days of its release (later replaced by Avatar).
MUSIC Pg. 764
For some music critics, the beginning of the 1970s represented the END of an era. The most important rock band of the 1960s, the BEATLES, officially broke up. During the 1970s much of rock music changed from being the music of the counterculture to becoming big business. Record company executives and radio stations marketed rock music by packaging it and targeting consumers.
The most popular musical style was DISCO, a type of dance music. Discotheques, or clubs where patrons danced to recorded music instead of live bands, had gone out of fashion during the 1960s. Their popularity returned in the 1970s. At its height, there were thousands of discotheques in the US.
Not all Americans enjoyed disco music. Some latched on to a new sound called PUNK rock. Artists such as Lou Reed, Patti Smith, and a New York band called the Ramones rejected technical precision in favor of energy and expressive lyrics. Although punk rock received media attention and influenced a new generation of performers, it never matched the COMMERCIAL success or popularity of disco.
TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES Pg. 764
Sophisticated technological developments changed the way that Americans viewed the UNIVERSE. Other innovations of the 1970s would eventually change the ways that we worked, played, and communicated.
THE SPACE PROGRAM Pg. 764-765
On July 20, 1969, Americans cheered as astronauts NEIL Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" ALDRIN landed their Apollo 11 lunar module on the Moon. Stepping onto the lunar surface, Armstrong declared, "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind." Between 1969 and 1972 the US sent 6 more Apollo missions into space. Only Apollo 13, which experienced technical problems so severe that the lives of the astronauts were in danger, did not reach the Moon.
SKYLAB, the 1st US space station, was placed in orbit in 1973. Over the course of a year, 3 astronaut teams visited [it], logging some 171 days aboard the station. In 1975, US astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts met and worked together in space on the Apollo-Soyuz mission. The space program also led to many inventions that were adapted for use in daily life. For example, SMOKE detectors were 1st used on Skylab to help detect toxic vapors. Portable, self-contained tools were originally developed to help Apollo astronauts drill on the Moon. This technology has led to the development of items such as cordless VACUUM CLEANERS and power tools. Other "spin-off" technologies include TV satellite DISHES, automobile designs, medical imaging, and high-tech construction materials.
INNOVATIONS Pg. 765
In 1976 Steve JOBS and Stephen WOZNIAK, 2 college dropouts who worked for computer companies, founded Apple Computers. The 2 had built a small PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC) in the garage of Jobs’ parents' house. Unlike earlier computers, which were very large and very expensive, PCs were affordable and small enough to sit on a desk. In 1977 Jobs and Wozniak introduced the Apple II, a 12-pound computer that revolutionized the computer industry. By 1980 stock in Apple was valued at $1.3 billion, and major corporations such as IBM were preparing to market their own personal computers. PCs also changed the nature of BUSINESS.
Other technological innovations of the 1970s affected ENTERTAINMENT and COMMUNICATIONS. In 1975 Atari introduced a video-game system that was played on TV sets. Within a year Americans had spent some $250 million on such games. Low-cost VIDEO-CASSETTE RECORDERS (VCRs) changed TV viewing habits. The telephone ANSWERING machine also became commonplace after improvements made the devices more AFFORDABLE.