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Friday, March 29, 2013

Ch. 22 Notes for You to Check



CH. 22: THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT (1960-1978)
DEFINE: (On a separate sheet of paper) Nonviolent Resistance, Sit-Ins, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Freedom Riders, 24th Amend., Voting Rights Act, Nation of Islam, Black Power, Black Panther Party, Busing, Affirmative Action, Quotas, University of Cali v. Bakke
SECTION 1: FREEDOM NOW!
NONVIOLENCE IN ACTION:
- Confronting “the forces of hate with the power of love”
- Following the success of the MBB, CR leaders met in ATLANTA: MIA expanded into SCLC; MLK led and pledged nonviolent protests (Pg. 650)
STUDENT PROTESTS
-  At segregated lunch counters, known as sit-INS (Pg. 650)
- Leaders of the sit-IN demonstrations founded the SNCC (Pg. 650)
- Many whites taunted the protesters and dumped food and drinks on them and this harassment soon turned into (PHYSCIAL) attacks
- … Protesters persevered and soon many restaurants across the (SOUTH) had been integrated (Pg. 651)
THE FREEDOM RIDES
- The success of the student’s protests inspired CORE (CONGRESS OF RACIAL EQUALITY), which hoped to launch new nonviolent protests (Pg. 651)
- SCOTUS (Dec 1960) ruled that segregation was (ILLEGAL) (Pg. 651)
- CORE leaders planned to send an integrated group of FREEDOM RIDERS on bus trips through the South to draw attention to violations of the SCOTUS ruling (Pg. 651)
- Violence erupted when they crossed the ALABAMA state line and where also attacked in BIRMINGHAM, AL (Pg. 651)
- Despite his support of their constitutional rights, Pres. JFK, who did not want the violence to become an issue in an upcoming meeting with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, wanted the SNCC to (END) the rides (Pg. 651)
- In Birmingham, after being sent by the SNCC, the riders were quickly ARRESTED and transported to the state line, though they quickly made their way back (Pg. 651)
- Not wanting further conflict, US AG Robert KENNEDY, along with AL Governor John  Patterson agreed to give the riders protection, though they were once again attacked after arriving in Montgomery, AL (Pg. 651)
- JFK sends federal marshals to protect the riders and RK pressures the Interstate Commerce Commission into strengthening DESEGREGATION regulations (Pg. 652)
CONTINUED STRUGGLES
UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI.: James MEREDITH attends and graduates (1963), despite the governor, and protestors’ best efforts to stop him (Pg. 652)
PROTEST IN ALBANY, GA: The police did not resort to violence (“meeting nonviolence with nonviolence”) and this was (UNSUCCESSFUL) without media attention
PROTEST IN BIRMINGHAM, AL: The police attacked protesters, many of whom were students. Protesters gained support and proved to be a (SUCCESSFUL) protest due to the violence and media attention (Pg. 652-654)
THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964
- Events in BIRMINGHAM forced Pres. JFK to take a stand on CR (Pg. 654)
- (1963) JFK asks Congress “to enact legislation giving all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the PUBLIC” (Pg. 654)
THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON
- Organized to build SUPPORT for the CR movement (Pg. 654)
- More than 200,000 people gathered at the Lincoln Memorial on Aug. 28, 1963
- Many musicians and speakers from diverse backgrounds including: A. Philip Randolph, MLK, John Lewis, and Rabbi Joachim Prinz
- MLK’s “I HAVE A DREAM” speech: his vision of the US could and should be
THE ACT PASSES
- Success of the March on Washington raised hopes…
- Until a bomb explodes in a Birmingham CHURCH killing four young AA girls… (Pg. 655)
- … Then JOHN F. KENNEDY is assassinated in Dallas, TX (Pg. 655)
- New Pres. LBJ is a (STRONG) supporter of CR (Pg. 655)
- Despite opposition, the CIVIL RIGHTS Act of 1964 was passed (Pg. 655)
SECTION 2: VOTING RIGHTS
REGISTERING VOTERS
VOTER REGISTRATION IN MISSISSIPPI: Registering AA voters in the face of HUGE opposition to AA suffrage in the South
1. Murder of Herbert LEE and violence against African Americans (Pg. 657)
2. Violence against SNCC volunteers such as Robert MOSES (Pg. 656)
3. Arrest of student demonstrators in McComb, MI
4. Arson at SNCC office
FREEDOM SUMMER: Bringing in white volunteers to help the effort to change the perception of AA suffrage, after passage of the 24th Amendment, … but more opposition and violence… (Pg. 658)
1. Murders of James CHANEY, Andrew GOODMAN, and Michael SCHWERNER (Pg. 658)
2. Fear of violence against African Americans
A NEW APPROACH
- Getting AA into political conventions (more power)… but not invited in the end
- Mississippi FREEDOM DEMOCRATIC Party (MFDP); Worries that (D) were strong in words of support but not actions (Pg. 659)
SELMA AND THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT
- Efforts to register voters in Selma, AL because of the 15,000 eligible AA, only 383 were registered (Pg. 659)
- Many who tried to register were beaten or arrested
- CR leaders wanted a protest march from Selma to MONTGOMERY, Alabama (Pg. 659)
- Alabama’s governor opposed, but some 600 started the 54-mile trek (March 7)…
- … Then protestors were attacked by police on “Bloody SUNDAY” (Pg. 660)
- Outraged by the attack, 1,000s came to Montgomery to support the marchers
- LBJ asks Congress for speedy passage of a VOTING rights bill (Pg. 660)
- A week later, under the watch of federal marshals and National Guard, the march is completed successfully
- 5 months later Congress passed the VOTING RIGHTS Act (Pg. 660)
- Now under federal control, people come in to register voters
- Mississippi went from less than 7% registered to 59% in 4 years (Pg. 660)
SECTION 3: CHALLENGES
NEW DIRECTIONS
- Some questioned the effectiveness of nonviolence and the movement’s goals
THE BLACK MUSLIMS: The Nation of ISLAM (aka BM) rose (Pg. 661)
- Wallace D. Fard founder was their founder
- Based on the teachings of the prophet MUHAMMAD, however emphasized the supremacy of black people over all other races (Pg. 661)
- ELIJAH Muhammad would become leader (1930s-50s): AA should create their own state in the US (Pg. 661)
- Many rejected their last names as relics of slavery and used “X” to symbolize lost African names (Pg. 661)
- Self-discipline, self-reliance, and rejection of US gov stressed
- Told to not serve in the US military, evaded WW2 draft, and many sent to prison
- Realized AA prisoners largely ignored, recruited convicts to their message, and proved effective with an estimated 100,000 Black Muslims in the 1970s (Pg. 662)
MALCOLM LITTLE BECOMES MALCOLM X:
- The growth of the Nation of Islam in the 1950s was due to Malcolm X (Pg. 662)
- Charismatic young MINISTER (Pg. 662)
- Father died in a racially motivated murder
- Tried to ignore racism, was a great student, until a TEACHER’s discouragement set him on a new path (Pg. 662)
- Dropped out of school and moved towards a life of crime, sentenced to jail and embraced the teachings of MUHAMMAD (Pg. 662)
- Changed his name and became a leading minister for the Nation of Islam
- Powerful speaker who championed African American separatism and called for AA freedom to be brought by “any means NECESSARY” and claimed time for nonviolence had passed (Pg. 662)
- Malcolm X disagreed with the CR movement and with MLK…
- … However changed during the 1960s after going on a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1964
- … And moved towards MLK’s side and broke with the Black Muslims
- Malcolm X was gunned down by 3 Black Muslim assassins in Feb 1965 (Pg. 663)
THE MOVEMENT FRACTURES
- Most thought of the CR movement as a (UNIFIED) effort led by MLK, when in fact it was made up of diverse groups united by the common goal of ending racial segregation (Pg. 663)
- Many conflicts between these various groups started to emerge by the mid-1960s
VIEWS OF MAINSTREAM CR LEADERS: CR will be obtained through…
1. Nonviolence                              2. Integration
VIEWS OF MALCOLM X: CR will be obtained through…
1. “Any means necessary”         2. African American separatism
STOKELY CARMICHAEL AND BLACK POWER:
- More and more viewed nonviolence as (INEFFECTIVE) (Pg. 663)
- More and more questioned the goal of integration with all of the violence against them
- More and more upset that whites who were helping, and had been killed, got more attention than their black counterparts
- SNCC’s Carmichael, after being arrested and intimidated, told a rally, “What do you want?” and heard “BLACK POWER!”; Carmichael used this slogan to bring awareness to the movement (Pg. 664)
- MLK (NOT HAPPY) and worried it would create hostilities: “If you have real power you don’t need a SLOGAN” (Pg. 664)
THE BLACK PANTHERS:
- Despite MLK’s misgivings, many were attracted to Carmichael’s Black Power message
- Bobby SEALE and Huey NEWTON: “organize[d] youthful black folks into some kind of political, electoral power movement” (Pg. 664)
- Created the political org called the Black PANTHER Party: “If you drive a panther into a corner, if he can’t go left and he can’t go right, then he will tend to come out of that corner to wipe out or stop its aggressor” (Pg. 664)
- “Black people will not be free until we are free to determine our own destiny”
- BP Party called for “land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, and peace”
- Also called for “black self-DEFENSE groups that are dedicated to defending our black community from racist police oppression” (Pg. 664)
- Members often appeared in public carrying FIREARMS (Pg. 664)
TRAGIC EVENTS
- Many whites opposed the movement’s expanded focus, moving beyond desegregation and into areas such as HOUSING and ECONOMIC justice (Pg. 665)
CHICAGO:
- By 1966 the SCLC was the only major civil rights org still primarily focused on nonviolent protest and MLK decides to battle racial discrimination in Chicago (Pg. 665)
- MLK and his family move into slum apts. to draw attention to HOUSING problems
- MLK and followers threatened, but had police protection
- MLK claimed victory but showed obstacles to full equality remained
- Demonstrations in the NORTH did not have the effect or support like those in the South earlier had (Pg. 665)
URBAN VIOLENCE:
- In the mid-1960s white backlash emerged and (LBJ)’s administration became reluctant to press for further gains (Pg. 666)
- Black Power movement and a series of urban riots turned many (WHITE) Americans away (Pg. 666)
- Despite CR successes, discrimination still (AFFECTED) most AAs
- Aug 1965: frustration leads to violence in LA where a riot raged for 6 days
- More and more riots over the following 2 years, with the worst in Detroit with 43 people dying (Pg. 666)
- LBJ appoints the KERNER Commission to investigate violence: “Our nation,” the report warned, “is moving toward two societies, one black, one white-separate and unequal”
- MLK did embrace some of the BLACK POWER movement’s ideas, such as AA economic power (Pg. 666)
- MLK became increasingly upset that funding for social programs was being diverted to the VIETNAM War (Pg. 666)
- MLK called for a Poor People’s CAMPAIGN march in Washington, DC (Pg. 666)
- Before the march, MLK went to Memphis, TN to show his support for a sanitation strike
- On the evening of April 4, 1968, MLK was assassinated by a sniper (Pg. 666)
- Riots occurred across the country
SECTION 4: THE MOVEMENT CONTINUES
A CRISIS IN DIRECTION
- New problems emerged in the wake of MLK’s assassination and the decline of BP groups during the 1970s (Pg. 667)
SCLC:
- Determined to continue MLK’s work, SCLC went ahead with the Poor People’s Campaign, led by Ralph ABERNATHY (Pg. 667)
- Constructed RESURRECTION City, a settlement of tents and shacks on public land, in Washington, DC to bring attention to AA poverty… (Pg. 667)
- … PPC was a (DISASTER) with constant rain turning the shantytown into a sea of mud (Pg. 667)
- SCLC leaders dealt with violence and all demonstrators were eventually evicted
- This failure worried many CR activists and soon the SCLC faded from power (Pg. 667)
BLACK NATIONALISM:
- More and more orgs that supported Black Nationalism faced growing problems
- Dealt with FBI scrutiny, headed by director J. EDGAR HOOVER, who launched a program designed to “expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize the[ir] activities” (Pg. 668)
- Many orgs also had internal conflicts: SNCC, Black Panthers, and Black Muslims
1. SNCC: Issues with Stokely CARMICHAEL, controversial protests against the Vietnam War, and plans to unite with the Black Panthers (Pg. 668)
2. Black Panthers: Openly (SUPPORTED) violence, saw the expulsion of Carmichael, and both BP and SNCC lost influence and declined (Pg. 668)
3. Black Muslims: Unlike BP and SNCC, BM survived into the 1970s, with Elijah M’s son WALLACE taking over (Pg. 668)
BACKLASH
- White opponents of CR reform felt it was depriving them of their own RIGHTS (Pg. 668)
- Opponents targeted court-ordered BUSING, which was meant to desegregate the nation’s public schools (Pg. 668)
BUSING AND INTEGRATION:
- Brown v. Board ended RACIAL segregation in public schools (Pg. 668)
- However, because residential neighborhoods in most US cities remained segregated, many schools in both the South and the North were also segregated, which is why some schools decided to use busing to integrate schools
- 1971: (SCOTUS) approved a busing plan in Charlotte, NC (Pg. 668)
- Polls of whites saw 3-1 against busing and many AAs were skeptical of the plan
- Strong opposition in cities such as Boston, where violent protests had erupted
- Despite the risks, many AA parents thought it was (NECESSARY) to achieve equal educational opportunities (Pg. 669)
- The busing controversy quieted down after SCOTUS limited the use of busing as a means to achieve racial integration
- Milliken v. Bradley (1974): Ended a plan to merge inner-city school districts with suburban districts in DETROIT, Michigan (Pg. 669)
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION:
- The Justice Dept. brought more and more suits against CORPORATIONS and labor UNIONS to end discriminatory hiring and unfair labor practices (Pg. 669)
- Many schools and businesses instituted affirmative action programs to compensate for previous DISCRIMINATION (Pg. 669)
- Many elected politicians (DID NOT) support affirmative action… (Pg. 669)
- … However, SCOTUS upheld the constitutionality of such programs in Griggs v. Duke Power Co. (1971)
- Many whites argued that affirmative action caused “REVERSE discrimination” (Pg. 669)
- University of California v. Bakke: SCOTUS ruled that a white man, Bakke, unfairly denied ADMISSION to a medical school due to a quota system (Pg. 669)
- SCOTUS (DID NOT) strike down affirmative action, but ended quotas in regards to university admissions (Pg. 669)
SUCCESSES OF THE MOVEMENT (1970s)
- CARL STOKES became the 1st African American to be elected mayor of Cleveland (Pg. 670)
- African Americans formed strong alliances and effective lobbies
- The # of African Americans enrolled in colleges and universities (INCREASED) (Pg. 671)
- African Americans played a crucial role in the 1976 presidential election (Pg. 671)
- The income gap between whites and African Americans (NARROWED)
- The # of African American businesses (ROSE) (Pg. 671)
- By the end of the 1970s more than 4,500 African Americans held elected office
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS:
1. (SECT. 1) What events led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? Events that led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1963 included: SIT-ins, FREEDOM Rides, Protests in Albany and Birmingham, and the March on WASHINGTON, DC.
2. (SECT. 2) How did Freedom Summer differ from earlier voter registration drives? (WHITE) activists involvement in the drive made the Freedom Summer different from earlier AA voter registration drives.
3. (SECT. 2) Why did the Voting Rights Act mark a major turning point in the civil rights struggle? The Voting Rights Act gave the (FERDERAL) gov the power to enforce voting rights for African Americans
4. (SECT. 3) What were the goals of the black nationalists? The goals of black nationalists included Black separatism and AA self-reliance.
5. (SECT. 4) How did the civil rights movement change in the late 1960s and early 70s? Black separatism caused (A LACK) of unity within the CR movement and the SCLC turned its attention to economic and educational discrimination.
REVIEWING THEMES:
1. (CITIZENSHIP) What difficulties did the SCLC face when it attempted to bring the civil rights struggle to northern cities? The SCLC faced the same threats and violence as they had faced in the South, as well as reluctance by the federal gov to support civil rights in large northern cities
2. (CONSITUTIONAL HERITAGE) What effect did Supreme Court rulings have on the civil rights movement? SCOTUS supported school desegregation but struck down racial QUOTAS in university admissions
3. (ECONOMICS) What type of economic growth did black nationalists favor? Black nationalists favored the growth of African American BUSINESSES and political power.
THINKING CRITICALLY:
1. (Evaluating) In what circumstances was nonviolent protest most effective and why? Integrating (PUBLIC) areas, because it interfered with business and because the federal gov eventually took steps to protect protesters from (VIOLENCE).
2. (Analyzing Information) What contributions did MLK and Malcolm X make to the civil rights movement? MLK: NONviolent protests led to desegregation and the Civil Rights Act; Malcolm X: Encouraged African Americans to take pride in their racial identity and heritage.
3. (Identifying POVs) Why did SNCC workers such as Stokely Carmichael abandon nonviolent protest? Some activists believed that nonviolent protests were not working fast enough; Others questioned the goals of integration; Many were angered that the deaths of white activists provoked (MORE) outrage than did those of African Americans.
4. (Summarizing) What actions did African Americans take in the early 1960s and early 1970s to expand economic opportunities and political rights? Political: Protests and voter registration drives in the (SOUTH), the march on WASHINGTON, Black Power movement; Economic: Protests against housing discrimination, Poor PEOPLE’S Campaign, affirmative ACTION, and school desegregation.

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