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Friday, March 22, 2013

Ch. 21 Notes for You to Check


CH. 21: THE NEW FRONTIER AND THE GREAT SOCIETY (1961-1969)
DEFINE (ON A SEPARATE PAGE AND STAPLE TO PACKET): Flexible Response, Hot Line, Peace Corps, Alliance for Progress, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis, New Frontier, Warren Commission, Great Society, Medicare, Medicaid, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, War on Poverty, Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Reynolds v. Sims
SECTION 1: KENNEDY AND THE COLD WAR
THE 1960 CAMPAIGN
- 22nd Amendment passes and the President is limited to 2 (#) terms (Pg. 624)
- Eisenhower (R #34) cannot run again, despite people being pleased
- (R) nominate Eisenhower’s VP RICHARD NIXON (Pg. 624)
- (D) nominate Senator JOHN F. KENNEDY (JFK): Charm, wit, good looks, and WW2 service made him popular, though his religion, Roman CATHOLIC, made many worry: Who is in charge: Pres or Pope? (Pg. 624)
- JFK selects TX Senator LYNDON B. JOHNSON (LBJ) as VP (Pg. 624)
- Nixon argued that he had the MATURITY and EXPERIENCE to serve as president. (Pg. 625)
TV COVERAGE AND THE ELECTION OF 1960
PRE-DEBATES: NIXON led in the polls (Pg. 625)
DEBATES: Showed a vibrant JFK and a weary RN; Radio listeners thought NIXON won, while TV viewers thought JFK won; TV (MORE) influential to public
POST DEBATES: JFK wins with a narrow victory (D #35)
KENNEDY’S FOREIGN POLICY
JFKs FLEXIBLE RESPONSE:
WEAPONS: Nuclear weapons buildup
MILITARY FORCES: Strengthened conventional MILITARY forces, established special military units, such as the Green BERETS (Pg. 626)
NONMILITARY OPTIONS: Peace CORPS, Alliance for PROGRESS, Economic Aid to Latin America (Pg. 626)
THE BAY OF PIGS
- Soviets gaining a foothold in Latin AMERICA, causing it to become a special target for aid from the US (Pg. 627)
- FIDEL CASTRO comes to power in Cuba (1959); Spread of communism; US L
- JFK approves CIA overthrow attempt of Castro by anti-Castro Cuban refUGEES
- DISASTER!: Cubans stop the overthrow attempt and US backups never arrive
- MORE FALLOUT: Cuba becomes closer with THE SOVIETS, US looks weak
THE BERLIN CRISIS
- SU feels that US is weak and demands that the US removes all troops from West BERLIN and recognize communist East GERMANY (Pg. 628)
- A barrier was put up to cut off TRAFFIC between E and W Berlin (Pg. 628)
- The barrier halted the mass departure of EAST Germans to the WEST through Berlin, which was NK’s real aim goal, i.e. so it looked like communism was succeeding (Pg. 628)
- Barrier replaced with the Berlin WALL, which became the most widely recognized symbol of the Cold War (Pg. 628)
THE MISSILES OF OCTOBER
- Castro asks NK for defensive WEAPONS; Soviets give defensive and offensive missiles, nuclear missiles that could hit the EASTERN US (Pg. 629)
- CIA monitors and confirms the existence of these weapons; no hoax
- JFK says any more weapons will be turned away and that the SU needs to remove any missiles that they brought
- Nuclear WAR loomed between the US and SU… (Pg. 630)
- … Until SOVIET ships turn around, NK agrees to dismantle the MISSILE bases, JFK promises not to invade CUBA and secretly agrees to remove some US missiles from some foreign sites (Pg. 630)
- Cuban MISSILE Crisis was a turning point in US and Soviet relations (Pg. 630)
- US and the Soviets sought to ease tensions and used: Limited NUCLEAR TEST Ban Treaty and a Hot line between the 2 nations (Pg. 630)
SECTION 2: THE KENNEDY WHITE HOUSE
THE KENNEDY CHARISMA
- The JFK IMAGE: Took pains to control his image; Was extremely (POPULAR/UNPOPULAR); Knew the immense power of the media; JFK promoted an image of health and vitality; Frequently photographed playing sports such as FOOTBALL, sailing, and SWIMMING. (Pg. 631)
- The JFK REALITY: Suffered from many physical ailments, including Addison’s disease; Not a healthy man despite projecting it; Many days spent in pain
- JFK married to JACQUELINE “Jackie” Kennedy; Young, attractive, admired by many (Pg. 631)
- Caroline and John Jr. were the 1st young kids in the WH since THEODORE ROOSEVELT’s administration (Pg. 632)
- Much of JFK’s support came from (YOUNG) people (Pg. 632)
- Helped motivate many youths into programs like the PEACE Corps (Pg. 632)
KENNEDY’S ADVISERS
- JFK wanted to use the gov to solve NATIONAL and GLOBAL problems (Pg. 633)
- To advance his programs JFK surrounded himself with likeminded individuals
- Average age of JFK’s cabinet was 47; more than a decade younger than Eisenhower’s cabinet (Pg. 633)
- JFK only wanted the best, brightest, and well educated to be in his cabinet
- JFK’s brother ROBERT “Bobby” became his AG and his closest advisor (Pg. 633)
THE DOMESTIC FRONTIER
- JFKs agenda was known as the New FRONTIER (Pg. 634)
- Managing the ECONOMY was one of JFK’s 1st priorities (Pg. 634)
- JFK called for an increase in gov SPENDING to keep unemployment and inflation (LOW) (Pg. 634)
- Got labor and businesses to agree to informal wage and price CONTROLS, especially in the steel industry, where many businesses paid labor more and raised prices to pay the cost (Pg. 634)
- JFK received very little support for his programs from Congress
- DEMOCRATS controlled House and Senate, but a small coalition of southern (D) and conservative (R) blocked most of JFKs domestic programs (Pg. 635)
- Congress blocked a big tax CUT for the public, assistance for the elderly’s medical bills, and federal aid for education (Pg. 635)
HELPING THE DISADVANTAGED
- JFK among the (WEALTHIEST) presidents; 10th overall (Pg. 635)
- JFK astonished at the conditions of poor West VIRGINIANS and sought ways for the poor to improve their standard of living (Pg. 635)
- Area Redevelopment Act (ARA – 1961): JFKs 1st legislative VICTORY (Pg. 635)
- JFK’s interest in the poor renewed in 1962 when reading Michael Harrington’s The Other AMERICA, a well-documented study of poverty in the US, which shattered that ALL Americans had benefited from the prosperity of the 1950s (Pg. 635)
- More than 42 million in the US lived on less than $1,000 per year (Pg. 635)
- Racism AND Poverty were the main issues in the US and became central to JFKs reelection campaign in 1964 (pg. 636)
TRAGEDY IN DALLAS
- To build support for his 1964 Pres. Campaign, JFK traveled to TX (state) in Nov 1963 (Pg. 636)
- On his way from the AIRPORT, JFK is assassinated (Pg. 636)
- Within hours, VP LYNDON B. JOHNSON (LBJ) is sworn in (Pg. 636)
- Also within hours, LEE HARVEY OSWALD was arrested for the murder
- While being moved between jails, Oswald is shot to death by JACK RUBY
- Many thought there was more to this story than was being released
- Pres. LBJ names the Warren COMMISSION to review the evidence, which found that each acted alone (Pg. 637)
- Many believed, and still believe, that more than 1 person was in on the shooting
SECTION 3: JOHNSON’S GREAT SOCIETY
LBJ TAKES OVER
- LBJ: From TX, ambitious, hardworking, master of compromise; former VP and Senate (MAJORITY) leader (Pg. 638)
- JFKs cabinet continued on and LBJ continued his policies as well; though LBJ had his own agenda
- Got Congress to pass tax CUT and CIVIL RIGHTS legislation which had stalled under JFK (Pg. 639)
- “I am a Roosevelt New Dealer… as a matter of fact JFK was a little to conservative to suit my taste”
- Hired more women and Mexican Americans to government jobs
- Took on JFK’s War on POVERTY initiative: OEO, Jobs Corps, VISTA, and improvements for American Indian reservations (Pg. 639-640)
LBJ’S VISION FOR AMERICA
- Unlike JFK, LBJ had no problem pushing legislation through Congress
- Launched campaign for presidency, 1st full-term after finishing JFK’s, with the Great SOCIETY (1964) , LBJ’s domestic reform program (Pg. 640)
- LBJ (D) vs. Barry Goldwater (R); Goldwater rejected “Modern REPUBLICANISM,” former President Eisenhower, in favor of extremism (Pg. 641)
- LBJ used harsh campaigning tactics and (WON) in a landslide (Pg. 641)
LBJ AND CONGRESS
EFFECTS OF THE GREAT SOCIETY IN:
EDUCATION: Head Start, Elementary and Secondary Ed Act, Corporation for Public Broadcasting
HOUSING: Department of Housing and Urban Development; Omnibus Housing Act
HEALTH CARE: Medicare and Medicaid
ENVIRONMENT: Water Quality Act of 1965, Laws, new National Parks and wilderness areas
THE WARREN COURT DECISIONS
- “Activist” court; Under the leadership of Chief Justice Earl Warren, further defined and extended INDIVIDUAL rights (Pg. 644)
Baker v. CARR (1962): Led to ruling that electoral districts had to have the same # of voters; i.e. 1 person, 1 vote (Pg. 644)
Gideon v. WAINWRIGHT (1963): Declared that states had to provide lawyers for impoverished defendants charged with serious crimes (Pg. 644)
ESCOBEDO v. Illinois (1964): Declared that the accused had the right to have a lawyer present during police investigations (Pg. 644)
Miranda v. ARIZONA (1966): Declared that accused persons had to be informed of their rights at the time of arrest (Pg. 644)
THE DECLINE OF THE GREAT SOCIETY
- Like other postwar presidents, LBJ committed to fighting the COLD WAR (Pg. 644)
- Although LBJ cared more about DOMESTIC policy, but FOREIGN affairs demanded his attention (Pg. 644)
- Sent Marines to the DOMINICAN Republic when military rebels rebelled against their military gov; Situation stabilized with US support (Pg. 644)
- Many Latin Americans condemned the US; Though LBJ had lots of US support
- Vietnam War became LBJs focus, spending 18X more on it than the War on Poverty and other social programs, which angered MLK and many others who feared that social issues such as the CR movement would be overshadowed by war overseas (Pg. 644)
- Growing domestic (OPPOSITION) to the Great Society (Pg. 645)
- Many in Congress felt LBJ was requesting to many bills to quickly, despite his legislative success record; 181 of 200 of LBJ’s bills passed in 1965 thru 1966
- 1966 midterm elections saw (REPUBLICANS) gain 47 in the House and 3 in the Senate, hurting LBJ (Pg. 645)
- Many complained about Great Society programs and funding and thought the $ should instead be spent on the VIETNAM War (Pg. 645)
- Even with these issues, many Great Society programs endure to this day and bring many benefits to Americans; MediCARE, MediCAID, NEH, and Head Start (Pg. 645)
JFK: (See if you remember without pg. #’s)
GOALS: Containment of COMMUNISM, Reduction of unEMPLOYMENT and inFLATION, Economic growth, Antipoverty programs
ACHIEVEMENTS: Defense of (WEST) Berlin, Removal of Soviet missiles from CUBA, Area ReDEVELOPMENT Act
LBJ: (See if you remember without pg. #’s)
GOALS: Expansion of JFKs (DOMESTIC) agenda, Creation of a Great Society
ACHIEVEMENTS: War on POVERTY, Great Society legislation
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS:
1. (SECT. 1) What role did TV play in the 1960 pres. election? TV helped JFK win a close election over RICHARD NIXON by showing JFK as more presidential.
2. (SECT. 1) How did the establishment of a communist gov in Cuba lead to increased Cold War tensions? Cuba’s proximity to the US made the prospect of Soviet missiles on the island very threatening and increased Cold War tensions.
3. (SECT. 2) How did Kennedy attempt to manage the economy? JFK attempted to manage the ECONOMY by reducing unemployment, curbing inflation, and stimulating growth.
4. (SECT. 2) Why did Kennedy fail to gain passage of most of his legislative initiatives? Opposition from congressional coalition of southern DEMOCRATS and conservative Republicans caused failure to JFK’s attempts to pass most of his legislation.
5. (SECT. 3) How did Pres. LBJ establish continuity between his admin. and that of JFK? Pres. LBJ worked to fulfill JFK’s domestic agenda before moving on to his agenda.
6. (SECT. 3) What were some of the successes of the Great Society programs? Medicare, Medicaid, education efforts, urban renewal and housing programs, support for the arts, and environmental legislation were some of the successes of GREAT Society programs.
REVIEWING THEMES:
1. (GLOBAL RELATIONS) How did Pres. JFK’s Cold War foreign policy resemble that of his predecessors? How did it differ? JFK’s Cold War foreign policy resembled his predecessors with his continuing to build NUCLEAR weapons and opposing communism, while it differed with JFK expanding conventional weapons options and used economic aid.
2. (ECONOMICS) Why did Pres. JFK and LBJ both develop programs to help poor Americans? Pres. JFK and LBJ both developed programs to help (POOR) Americans because of personal concerns, Michael Harrington’s book The Other America, and the belief that the gov had an obligation to (HELP) the poor.
3. (GOVERNMENT) Why did JFK work so hard to control his public image? Pres. JFK knew that his public image augmented his political popularity and authority.
THINKING CRITICALLY:
1. (Identifying POVs) Why did many members of Congress oppose Pres. JFK’s tax cut proposal?
Fear of debt caused many in Congress to oppose JFK’s tax cut proposal.
2. (Categorizing) How did Pres. JFK try to stop the spread of communism? JFK used a flexible RESPONSE (militarily) and with the Peace Corps and the Alliance for Progress (economically) to stop the spread of communism.
3. (Analyzing Info) What were LBJ’s achievements as president? LBJ’s achievements as president included aiding people in poverty; MediCARE and MediCAID; advancing civil and individual rights, as well as education; and increasing environmental protections.
4. (Evaluating) How did the Warren Court decisions in Baker v. Carr, Reynolds v. Sims, and Wesberry v. Sanders strengthen equal participation in government? The Warren Court decisions in Baker v. Carr, Reynolds v. Sims and Wesberry v. Sanders strengthened equal participation in gov by declaring that electoral districts must contain approximately the same # of voters, affirming the “1 person, 1 vote” principle.
5. (Drawing Conclusions) In what ways was the Great Society an extension of the New Deal and the Fair Deal? The Great Society was an extension of the (NEW) Deal with federal programs addressing issues formerly administered by state and local govs. Medicaid was originally part of Pres. Harry Truman’s (FAIR) Deal.

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