Total Pageviews

Friday, March 29, 2013

Ch. 22 Notes for You to Check



CH. 22: THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT (1960-1978)
DEFINE: (On a separate sheet of paper) Nonviolent Resistance, Sit-Ins, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Freedom Riders, 24th Amend., Voting Rights Act, Nation of Islam, Black Power, Black Panther Party, Busing, Affirmative Action, Quotas, University of Cali v. Bakke
SECTION 1: FREEDOM NOW!
NONVIOLENCE IN ACTION:
- Confronting “the forces of hate with the power of love”
- Following the success of the MBB, CR leaders met in ATLANTA: MIA expanded into SCLC; MLK led and pledged nonviolent protests (Pg. 650)
STUDENT PROTESTS
-  At segregated lunch counters, known as sit-INS (Pg. 650)
- Leaders of the sit-IN demonstrations founded the SNCC (Pg. 650)
- Many whites taunted the protesters and dumped food and drinks on them and this harassment soon turned into (PHYSCIAL) attacks
- … Protesters persevered and soon many restaurants across the (SOUTH) had been integrated (Pg. 651)
THE FREEDOM RIDES
- The success of the student’s protests inspired CORE (CONGRESS OF RACIAL EQUALITY), which hoped to launch new nonviolent protests (Pg. 651)
- SCOTUS (Dec 1960) ruled that segregation was (ILLEGAL) (Pg. 651)
- CORE leaders planned to send an integrated group of FREEDOM RIDERS on bus trips through the South to draw attention to violations of the SCOTUS ruling (Pg. 651)
- Violence erupted when they crossed the ALABAMA state line and where also attacked in BIRMINGHAM, AL (Pg. 651)
- Despite his support of their constitutional rights, Pres. JFK, who did not want the violence to become an issue in an upcoming meeting with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, wanted the SNCC to (END) the rides (Pg. 651)
- In Birmingham, after being sent by the SNCC, the riders were quickly ARRESTED and transported to the state line, though they quickly made their way back (Pg. 651)
- Not wanting further conflict, US AG Robert KENNEDY, along with AL Governor John  Patterson agreed to give the riders protection, though they were once again attacked after arriving in Montgomery, AL (Pg. 651)
- JFK sends federal marshals to protect the riders and RK pressures the Interstate Commerce Commission into strengthening DESEGREGATION regulations (Pg. 652)
CONTINUED STRUGGLES
UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI.: James MEREDITH attends and graduates (1963), despite the governor, and protestors’ best efforts to stop him (Pg. 652)
PROTEST IN ALBANY, GA: The police did not resort to violence (“meeting nonviolence with nonviolence”) and this was (UNSUCCESSFUL) without media attention
PROTEST IN BIRMINGHAM, AL: The police attacked protesters, many of whom were students. Protesters gained support and proved to be a (SUCCESSFUL) protest due to the violence and media attention (Pg. 652-654)
THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964
- Events in BIRMINGHAM forced Pres. JFK to take a stand on CR (Pg. 654)
- (1963) JFK asks Congress “to enact legislation giving all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the PUBLIC” (Pg. 654)
THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON
- Organized to build SUPPORT for the CR movement (Pg. 654)
- More than 200,000 people gathered at the Lincoln Memorial on Aug. 28, 1963
- Many musicians and speakers from diverse backgrounds including: A. Philip Randolph, MLK, John Lewis, and Rabbi Joachim Prinz
- MLK’s “I HAVE A DREAM” speech: his vision of the US could and should be
THE ACT PASSES
- Success of the March on Washington raised hopes…
- Until a bomb explodes in a Birmingham CHURCH killing four young AA girls… (Pg. 655)
- … Then JOHN F. KENNEDY is assassinated in Dallas, TX (Pg. 655)
- New Pres. LBJ is a (STRONG) supporter of CR (Pg. 655)
- Despite opposition, the CIVIL RIGHTS Act of 1964 was passed (Pg. 655)
SECTION 2: VOTING RIGHTS
REGISTERING VOTERS
VOTER REGISTRATION IN MISSISSIPPI: Registering AA voters in the face of HUGE opposition to AA suffrage in the South
1. Murder of Herbert LEE and violence against African Americans (Pg. 657)
2. Violence against SNCC volunteers such as Robert MOSES (Pg. 656)
3. Arrest of student demonstrators in McComb, MI
4. Arson at SNCC office
FREEDOM SUMMER: Bringing in white volunteers to help the effort to change the perception of AA suffrage, after passage of the 24th Amendment, … but more opposition and violence… (Pg. 658)
1. Murders of James CHANEY, Andrew GOODMAN, and Michael SCHWERNER (Pg. 658)
2. Fear of violence against African Americans
A NEW APPROACH
- Getting AA into political conventions (more power)… but not invited in the end
- Mississippi FREEDOM DEMOCRATIC Party (MFDP); Worries that (D) were strong in words of support but not actions (Pg. 659)
SELMA AND THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT
- Efforts to register voters in Selma, AL because of the 15,000 eligible AA, only 383 were registered (Pg. 659)
- Many who tried to register were beaten or arrested
- CR leaders wanted a protest march from Selma to MONTGOMERY, Alabama (Pg. 659)
- Alabama’s governor opposed, but some 600 started the 54-mile trek (March 7)…
- … Then protestors were attacked by police on “Bloody SUNDAY” (Pg. 660)
- Outraged by the attack, 1,000s came to Montgomery to support the marchers
- LBJ asks Congress for speedy passage of a VOTING rights bill (Pg. 660)
- A week later, under the watch of federal marshals and National Guard, the march is completed successfully
- 5 months later Congress passed the VOTING RIGHTS Act (Pg. 660)
- Now under federal control, people come in to register voters
- Mississippi went from less than 7% registered to 59% in 4 years (Pg. 660)
SECTION 3: CHALLENGES
NEW DIRECTIONS
- Some questioned the effectiveness of nonviolence and the movement’s goals
THE BLACK MUSLIMS: The Nation of ISLAM (aka BM) rose (Pg. 661)
- Wallace D. Fard founder was their founder
- Based on the teachings of the prophet MUHAMMAD, however emphasized the supremacy of black people over all other races (Pg. 661)
- ELIJAH Muhammad would become leader (1930s-50s): AA should create their own state in the US (Pg. 661)
- Many rejected their last names as relics of slavery and used “X” to symbolize lost African names (Pg. 661)
- Self-discipline, self-reliance, and rejection of US gov stressed
- Told to not serve in the US military, evaded WW2 draft, and many sent to prison
- Realized AA prisoners largely ignored, recruited convicts to their message, and proved effective with an estimated 100,000 Black Muslims in the 1970s (Pg. 662)
MALCOLM LITTLE BECOMES MALCOLM X:
- The growth of the Nation of Islam in the 1950s was due to Malcolm X (Pg. 662)
- Charismatic young MINISTER (Pg. 662)
- Father died in a racially motivated murder
- Tried to ignore racism, was a great student, until a TEACHER’s discouragement set him on a new path (Pg. 662)
- Dropped out of school and moved towards a life of crime, sentenced to jail and embraced the teachings of MUHAMMAD (Pg. 662)
- Changed his name and became a leading minister for the Nation of Islam
- Powerful speaker who championed African American separatism and called for AA freedom to be brought by “any means NECESSARY” and claimed time for nonviolence had passed (Pg. 662)
- Malcolm X disagreed with the CR movement and with MLK…
- … However changed during the 1960s after going on a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1964
- … And moved towards MLK’s side and broke with the Black Muslims
- Malcolm X was gunned down by 3 Black Muslim assassins in Feb 1965 (Pg. 663)
THE MOVEMENT FRACTURES
- Most thought of the CR movement as a (UNIFIED) effort led by MLK, when in fact it was made up of diverse groups united by the common goal of ending racial segregation (Pg. 663)
- Many conflicts between these various groups started to emerge by the mid-1960s
VIEWS OF MAINSTREAM CR LEADERS: CR will be obtained through…
1. Nonviolence                              2. Integration
VIEWS OF MALCOLM X: CR will be obtained through…
1. “Any means necessary”         2. African American separatism
STOKELY CARMICHAEL AND BLACK POWER:
- More and more viewed nonviolence as (INEFFECTIVE) (Pg. 663)
- More and more questioned the goal of integration with all of the violence against them
- More and more upset that whites who were helping, and had been killed, got more attention than their black counterparts
- SNCC’s Carmichael, after being arrested and intimidated, told a rally, “What do you want?” and heard “BLACK POWER!”; Carmichael used this slogan to bring awareness to the movement (Pg. 664)
- MLK (NOT HAPPY) and worried it would create hostilities: “If you have real power you don’t need a SLOGAN” (Pg. 664)
THE BLACK PANTHERS:
- Despite MLK’s misgivings, many were attracted to Carmichael’s Black Power message
- Bobby SEALE and Huey NEWTON: “organize[d] youthful black folks into some kind of political, electoral power movement” (Pg. 664)
- Created the political org called the Black PANTHER Party: “If you drive a panther into a corner, if he can’t go left and he can’t go right, then he will tend to come out of that corner to wipe out or stop its aggressor” (Pg. 664)
- “Black people will not be free until we are free to determine our own destiny”
- BP Party called for “land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, and peace”
- Also called for “black self-DEFENSE groups that are dedicated to defending our black community from racist police oppression” (Pg. 664)
- Members often appeared in public carrying FIREARMS (Pg. 664)
TRAGIC EVENTS
- Many whites opposed the movement’s expanded focus, moving beyond desegregation and into areas such as HOUSING and ECONOMIC justice (Pg. 665)
CHICAGO:
- By 1966 the SCLC was the only major civil rights org still primarily focused on nonviolent protest and MLK decides to battle racial discrimination in Chicago (Pg. 665)
- MLK and his family move into slum apts. to draw attention to HOUSING problems
- MLK and followers threatened, but had police protection
- MLK claimed victory but showed obstacles to full equality remained
- Demonstrations in the NORTH did not have the effect or support like those in the South earlier had (Pg. 665)
URBAN VIOLENCE:
- In the mid-1960s white backlash emerged and (LBJ)’s administration became reluctant to press for further gains (Pg. 666)
- Black Power movement and a series of urban riots turned many (WHITE) Americans away (Pg. 666)
- Despite CR successes, discrimination still (AFFECTED) most AAs
- Aug 1965: frustration leads to violence in LA where a riot raged for 6 days
- More and more riots over the following 2 years, with the worst in Detroit with 43 people dying (Pg. 666)
- LBJ appoints the KERNER Commission to investigate violence: “Our nation,” the report warned, “is moving toward two societies, one black, one white-separate and unequal”
- MLK did embrace some of the BLACK POWER movement’s ideas, such as AA economic power (Pg. 666)
- MLK became increasingly upset that funding for social programs was being diverted to the VIETNAM War (Pg. 666)
- MLK called for a Poor People’s CAMPAIGN march in Washington, DC (Pg. 666)
- Before the march, MLK went to Memphis, TN to show his support for a sanitation strike
- On the evening of April 4, 1968, MLK was assassinated by a sniper (Pg. 666)
- Riots occurred across the country
SECTION 4: THE MOVEMENT CONTINUES
A CRISIS IN DIRECTION
- New problems emerged in the wake of MLK’s assassination and the decline of BP groups during the 1970s (Pg. 667)
SCLC:
- Determined to continue MLK’s work, SCLC went ahead with the Poor People’s Campaign, led by Ralph ABERNATHY (Pg. 667)
- Constructed RESURRECTION City, a settlement of tents and shacks on public land, in Washington, DC to bring attention to AA poverty… (Pg. 667)
- … PPC was a (DISASTER) with constant rain turning the shantytown into a sea of mud (Pg. 667)
- SCLC leaders dealt with violence and all demonstrators were eventually evicted
- This failure worried many CR activists and soon the SCLC faded from power (Pg. 667)
BLACK NATIONALISM:
- More and more orgs that supported Black Nationalism faced growing problems
- Dealt with FBI scrutiny, headed by director J. EDGAR HOOVER, who launched a program designed to “expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize the[ir] activities” (Pg. 668)
- Many orgs also had internal conflicts: SNCC, Black Panthers, and Black Muslims
1. SNCC: Issues with Stokely CARMICHAEL, controversial protests against the Vietnam War, and plans to unite with the Black Panthers (Pg. 668)
2. Black Panthers: Openly (SUPPORTED) violence, saw the expulsion of Carmichael, and both BP and SNCC lost influence and declined (Pg. 668)
3. Black Muslims: Unlike BP and SNCC, BM survived into the 1970s, with Elijah M’s son WALLACE taking over (Pg. 668)
BACKLASH
- White opponents of CR reform felt it was depriving them of their own RIGHTS (Pg. 668)
- Opponents targeted court-ordered BUSING, which was meant to desegregate the nation’s public schools (Pg. 668)
BUSING AND INTEGRATION:
- Brown v. Board ended RACIAL segregation in public schools (Pg. 668)
- However, because residential neighborhoods in most US cities remained segregated, many schools in both the South and the North were also segregated, which is why some schools decided to use busing to integrate schools
- 1971: (SCOTUS) approved a busing plan in Charlotte, NC (Pg. 668)
- Polls of whites saw 3-1 against busing and many AAs were skeptical of the plan
- Strong opposition in cities such as Boston, where violent protests had erupted
- Despite the risks, many AA parents thought it was (NECESSARY) to achieve equal educational opportunities (Pg. 669)
- The busing controversy quieted down after SCOTUS limited the use of busing as a means to achieve racial integration
- Milliken v. Bradley (1974): Ended a plan to merge inner-city school districts with suburban districts in DETROIT, Michigan (Pg. 669)
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION:
- The Justice Dept. brought more and more suits against CORPORATIONS and labor UNIONS to end discriminatory hiring and unfair labor practices (Pg. 669)
- Many schools and businesses instituted affirmative action programs to compensate for previous DISCRIMINATION (Pg. 669)
- Many elected politicians (DID NOT) support affirmative action… (Pg. 669)
- … However, SCOTUS upheld the constitutionality of such programs in Griggs v. Duke Power Co. (1971)
- Many whites argued that affirmative action caused “REVERSE discrimination” (Pg. 669)
- University of California v. Bakke: SCOTUS ruled that a white man, Bakke, unfairly denied ADMISSION to a medical school due to a quota system (Pg. 669)
- SCOTUS (DID NOT) strike down affirmative action, but ended quotas in regards to university admissions (Pg. 669)
SUCCESSES OF THE MOVEMENT (1970s)
- CARL STOKES became the 1st African American to be elected mayor of Cleveland (Pg. 670)
- African Americans formed strong alliances and effective lobbies
- The # of African Americans enrolled in colleges and universities (INCREASED) (Pg. 671)
- African Americans played a crucial role in the 1976 presidential election (Pg. 671)
- The income gap between whites and African Americans (NARROWED)
- The # of African American businesses (ROSE) (Pg. 671)
- By the end of the 1970s more than 4,500 African Americans held elected office
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS:
1. (SECT. 1) What events led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? Events that led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1963 included: SIT-ins, FREEDOM Rides, Protests in Albany and Birmingham, and the March on WASHINGTON, DC.
2. (SECT. 2) How did Freedom Summer differ from earlier voter registration drives? (WHITE) activists involvement in the drive made the Freedom Summer different from earlier AA voter registration drives.
3. (SECT. 2) Why did the Voting Rights Act mark a major turning point in the civil rights struggle? The Voting Rights Act gave the (FERDERAL) gov the power to enforce voting rights for African Americans
4. (SECT. 3) What were the goals of the black nationalists? The goals of black nationalists included Black separatism and AA self-reliance.
5. (SECT. 4) How did the civil rights movement change in the late 1960s and early 70s? Black separatism caused (A LACK) of unity within the CR movement and the SCLC turned its attention to economic and educational discrimination.
REVIEWING THEMES:
1. (CITIZENSHIP) What difficulties did the SCLC face when it attempted to bring the civil rights struggle to northern cities? The SCLC faced the same threats and violence as they had faced in the South, as well as reluctance by the federal gov to support civil rights in large northern cities
2. (CONSITUTIONAL HERITAGE) What effect did Supreme Court rulings have on the civil rights movement? SCOTUS supported school desegregation but struck down racial QUOTAS in university admissions
3. (ECONOMICS) What type of economic growth did black nationalists favor? Black nationalists favored the growth of African American BUSINESSES and political power.
THINKING CRITICALLY:
1. (Evaluating) In what circumstances was nonviolent protest most effective and why? Integrating (PUBLIC) areas, because it interfered with business and because the federal gov eventually took steps to protect protesters from (VIOLENCE).
2. (Analyzing Information) What contributions did MLK and Malcolm X make to the civil rights movement? MLK: NONviolent protests led to desegregation and the Civil Rights Act; Malcolm X: Encouraged African Americans to take pride in their racial identity and heritage.
3. (Identifying POVs) Why did SNCC workers such as Stokely Carmichael abandon nonviolent protest? Some activists believed that nonviolent protests were not working fast enough; Others questioned the goals of integration; Many were angered that the deaths of white activists provoked (MORE) outrage than did those of African Americans.
4. (Summarizing) What actions did African Americans take in the early 1960s and early 1970s to expand economic opportunities and political rights? Political: Protests and voter registration drives in the (SOUTH), the march on WASHINGTON, Black Power movement; Economic: Protests against housing discrimination, Poor PEOPLE’S Campaign, affirmative ACTION, and school desegregation.

Week of April 1-5, 2013

Here is what's up in class for this upcoming week (which will wonderfully be affected by the STAAR Test during Monday-Thursday):
MONDAY: Odd Classes (3 and 7); Work on Ch. 22 Packets and Vocab; Lecture; Ch. 21 Take Home Quiz (Due Wednesday)
TUESDAY: Even Classes (2, 4, 6); Work on Ch. 22 Packets and Vocab; Lecture; Ch. 21 Take Home Quiz (Due Thursday)
WEDNESDAY: Odd Classes (3 and 7); Ch. 22 Packets and Vocab Due; Start Ch. 23 Vocab
THURSDAY: Even Classes (2, 4, 6); Ch. 22 Packets and Vocab Due; Start Ch. 23 Vocab
FRIDAY: Regular Schedule; Ch. 23 PowerPoint and Discussion (Vocab due Monday, Notes Due Tuesday/Wednesday)
NEXT TUESDAY: Ch. 22 Test

Friday, March 22, 2013

Hello and a Short Goodbye

I hope that everyone has a great Friday while I'm gone visiting my Grandparents (who I truly hope are feeling better)! Here are the things to remember for Friday and next week:
Friday: Work on the Ch. 21 packets and vocab (Due for full credit by next Wednesday and for some Extra Credit if you turn it in early)
Monday: Work on Ch. 21 Packets and Quick Ch. 20 Test Review
Tuesday: Ch. 20 Test (Scantron) and if time, work on Ch. 21 Packets
Wednesday: Finish Ch. 21 Packets and make sure all Ch. 21 work is turned it
Thursday: Ch. 22 - Vocab and PowerPoint Notes (Due by the following Wednesday)
Friday: Ch. 22 PowerPoint Notes and Discussion
The Following Tuesday: Ch. 21 Test
As you might know, yesterday was not a fun day for me with my phone disappearing. Things happen and hopefully that'll be the worst thing to happen this school year - which would be quite lucky - and no other issues will be had (and do not worry - I'm not sitting around crying - things happen and today is a new day). I will not mention this again and my attitude will not change (plus I do not want to go grey any quicker - haha). Sadly, some new rules: Please - no one near my desk unless called, no one in my room if I'm not in there, no more asking me to go out of the room all the time, and no more access to my personal computers. I am sorry about this but since I do not know what happened with my phone while I was at a meeting, I cannot let anything have the chance to disappear again. I know that it was only 1 bad person and that the vast majority of people here at BHS are wonderful and trustworthy! But unless my phone suddenly reappears, these new rules are permanent.
Below are the Ch. 21 Notes to check. Remember when things are due (above) and have a wonderful Friday and weekend!!! I miss everyone and hope that today is a great day!

Ch. 21 Notes for You to Check


CH. 21: THE NEW FRONTIER AND THE GREAT SOCIETY (1961-1969)
DEFINE (ON A SEPARATE PAGE AND STAPLE TO PACKET): Flexible Response, Hot Line, Peace Corps, Alliance for Progress, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis, New Frontier, Warren Commission, Great Society, Medicare, Medicaid, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, War on Poverty, Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Reynolds v. Sims
SECTION 1: KENNEDY AND THE COLD WAR
THE 1960 CAMPAIGN
- 22nd Amendment passes and the President is limited to 2 (#) terms (Pg. 624)
- Eisenhower (R #34) cannot run again, despite people being pleased
- (R) nominate Eisenhower’s VP RICHARD NIXON (Pg. 624)
- (D) nominate Senator JOHN F. KENNEDY (JFK): Charm, wit, good looks, and WW2 service made him popular, though his religion, Roman CATHOLIC, made many worry: Who is in charge: Pres or Pope? (Pg. 624)
- JFK selects TX Senator LYNDON B. JOHNSON (LBJ) as VP (Pg. 624)
- Nixon argued that he had the MATURITY and EXPERIENCE to serve as president. (Pg. 625)
TV COVERAGE AND THE ELECTION OF 1960
PRE-DEBATES: NIXON led in the polls (Pg. 625)
DEBATES: Showed a vibrant JFK and a weary RN; Radio listeners thought NIXON won, while TV viewers thought JFK won; TV (MORE) influential to public
POST DEBATES: JFK wins with a narrow victory (D #35)
KENNEDY’S FOREIGN POLICY
JFKs FLEXIBLE RESPONSE:
WEAPONS: Nuclear weapons buildup
MILITARY FORCES: Strengthened conventional MILITARY forces, established special military units, such as the Green BERETS (Pg. 626)
NONMILITARY OPTIONS: Peace CORPS, Alliance for PROGRESS, Economic Aid to Latin America (Pg. 626)
THE BAY OF PIGS
- Soviets gaining a foothold in Latin AMERICA, causing it to become a special target for aid from the US (Pg. 627)
- FIDEL CASTRO comes to power in Cuba (1959); Spread of communism; US L
- JFK approves CIA overthrow attempt of Castro by anti-Castro Cuban refUGEES
- DISASTER!: Cubans stop the overthrow attempt and US backups never arrive
- MORE FALLOUT: Cuba becomes closer with THE SOVIETS, US looks weak
THE BERLIN CRISIS
- SU feels that US is weak and demands that the US removes all troops from West BERLIN and recognize communist East GERMANY (Pg. 628)
- A barrier was put up to cut off TRAFFIC between E and W Berlin (Pg. 628)
- The barrier halted the mass departure of EAST Germans to the WEST through Berlin, which was NK’s real aim goal, i.e. so it looked like communism was succeeding (Pg. 628)
- Barrier replaced with the Berlin WALL, which became the most widely recognized symbol of the Cold War (Pg. 628)
THE MISSILES OF OCTOBER
- Castro asks NK for defensive WEAPONS; Soviets give defensive and offensive missiles, nuclear missiles that could hit the EASTERN US (Pg. 629)
- CIA monitors and confirms the existence of these weapons; no hoax
- JFK says any more weapons will be turned away and that the SU needs to remove any missiles that they brought
- Nuclear WAR loomed between the US and SU… (Pg. 630)
- … Until SOVIET ships turn around, NK agrees to dismantle the MISSILE bases, JFK promises not to invade CUBA and secretly agrees to remove some US missiles from some foreign sites (Pg. 630)
- Cuban MISSILE Crisis was a turning point in US and Soviet relations (Pg. 630)
- US and the Soviets sought to ease tensions and used: Limited NUCLEAR TEST Ban Treaty and a Hot line between the 2 nations (Pg. 630)
SECTION 2: THE KENNEDY WHITE HOUSE
THE KENNEDY CHARISMA
- The JFK IMAGE: Took pains to control his image; Was extremely (POPULAR/UNPOPULAR); Knew the immense power of the media; JFK promoted an image of health and vitality; Frequently photographed playing sports such as FOOTBALL, sailing, and SWIMMING. (Pg. 631)
- The JFK REALITY: Suffered from many physical ailments, including Addison’s disease; Not a healthy man despite projecting it; Many days spent in pain
- JFK married to JACQUELINE “Jackie” Kennedy; Young, attractive, admired by many (Pg. 631)
- Caroline and John Jr. were the 1st young kids in the WH since THEODORE ROOSEVELT’s administration (Pg. 632)
- Much of JFK’s support came from (YOUNG) people (Pg. 632)
- Helped motivate many youths into programs like the PEACE Corps (Pg. 632)
KENNEDY’S ADVISERS
- JFK wanted to use the gov to solve NATIONAL and GLOBAL problems (Pg. 633)
- To advance his programs JFK surrounded himself with likeminded individuals
- Average age of JFK’s cabinet was 47; more than a decade younger than Eisenhower’s cabinet (Pg. 633)
- JFK only wanted the best, brightest, and well educated to be in his cabinet
- JFK’s brother ROBERT “Bobby” became his AG and his closest advisor (Pg. 633)
THE DOMESTIC FRONTIER
- JFKs agenda was known as the New FRONTIER (Pg. 634)
- Managing the ECONOMY was one of JFK’s 1st priorities (Pg. 634)
- JFK called for an increase in gov SPENDING to keep unemployment and inflation (LOW) (Pg. 634)
- Got labor and businesses to agree to informal wage and price CONTROLS, especially in the steel industry, where many businesses paid labor more and raised prices to pay the cost (Pg. 634)
- JFK received very little support for his programs from Congress
- DEMOCRATS controlled House and Senate, but a small coalition of southern (D) and conservative (R) blocked most of JFKs domestic programs (Pg. 635)
- Congress blocked a big tax CUT for the public, assistance for the elderly’s medical bills, and federal aid for education (Pg. 635)
HELPING THE DISADVANTAGED
- JFK among the (WEALTHIEST) presidents; 10th overall (Pg. 635)
- JFK astonished at the conditions of poor West VIRGINIANS and sought ways for the poor to improve their standard of living (Pg. 635)
- Area Redevelopment Act (ARA – 1961): JFKs 1st legislative VICTORY (Pg. 635)
- JFK’s interest in the poor renewed in 1962 when reading Michael Harrington’s The Other AMERICA, a well-documented study of poverty in the US, which shattered that ALL Americans had benefited from the prosperity of the 1950s (Pg. 635)
- More than 42 million in the US lived on less than $1,000 per year (Pg. 635)
- Racism AND Poverty were the main issues in the US and became central to JFKs reelection campaign in 1964 (pg. 636)
TRAGEDY IN DALLAS
- To build support for his 1964 Pres. Campaign, JFK traveled to TX (state) in Nov 1963 (Pg. 636)
- On his way from the AIRPORT, JFK is assassinated (Pg. 636)
- Within hours, VP LYNDON B. JOHNSON (LBJ) is sworn in (Pg. 636)
- Also within hours, LEE HARVEY OSWALD was arrested for the murder
- While being moved between jails, Oswald is shot to death by JACK RUBY
- Many thought there was more to this story than was being released
- Pres. LBJ names the Warren COMMISSION to review the evidence, which found that each acted alone (Pg. 637)
- Many believed, and still believe, that more than 1 person was in on the shooting
SECTION 3: JOHNSON’S GREAT SOCIETY
LBJ TAKES OVER
- LBJ: From TX, ambitious, hardworking, master of compromise; former VP and Senate (MAJORITY) leader (Pg. 638)
- JFKs cabinet continued on and LBJ continued his policies as well; though LBJ had his own agenda
- Got Congress to pass tax CUT and CIVIL RIGHTS legislation which had stalled under JFK (Pg. 639)
- “I am a Roosevelt New Dealer… as a matter of fact JFK was a little to conservative to suit my taste”
- Hired more women and Mexican Americans to government jobs
- Took on JFK’s War on POVERTY initiative: OEO, Jobs Corps, VISTA, and improvements for American Indian reservations (Pg. 639-640)
LBJ’S VISION FOR AMERICA
- Unlike JFK, LBJ had no problem pushing legislation through Congress
- Launched campaign for presidency, 1st full-term after finishing JFK’s, with the Great SOCIETY (1964) , LBJ’s domestic reform program (Pg. 640)
- LBJ (D) vs. Barry Goldwater (R); Goldwater rejected “Modern REPUBLICANISM,” former President Eisenhower, in favor of extremism (Pg. 641)
- LBJ used harsh campaigning tactics and (WON) in a landslide (Pg. 641)
LBJ AND CONGRESS
EFFECTS OF THE GREAT SOCIETY IN:
EDUCATION: Head Start, Elementary and Secondary Ed Act, Corporation for Public Broadcasting
HOUSING: Department of Housing and Urban Development; Omnibus Housing Act
HEALTH CARE: Medicare and Medicaid
ENVIRONMENT: Water Quality Act of 1965, Laws, new National Parks and wilderness areas
THE WARREN COURT DECISIONS
- “Activist” court; Under the leadership of Chief Justice Earl Warren, further defined and extended INDIVIDUAL rights (Pg. 644)
Baker v. CARR (1962): Led to ruling that electoral districts had to have the same # of voters; i.e. 1 person, 1 vote (Pg. 644)
Gideon v. WAINWRIGHT (1963): Declared that states had to provide lawyers for impoverished defendants charged with serious crimes (Pg. 644)
ESCOBEDO v. Illinois (1964): Declared that the accused had the right to have a lawyer present during police investigations (Pg. 644)
Miranda v. ARIZONA (1966): Declared that accused persons had to be informed of their rights at the time of arrest (Pg. 644)
THE DECLINE OF THE GREAT SOCIETY
- Like other postwar presidents, LBJ committed to fighting the COLD WAR (Pg. 644)
- Although LBJ cared more about DOMESTIC policy, but FOREIGN affairs demanded his attention (Pg. 644)
- Sent Marines to the DOMINICAN Republic when military rebels rebelled against their military gov; Situation stabilized with US support (Pg. 644)
- Many Latin Americans condemned the US; Though LBJ had lots of US support
- Vietnam War became LBJs focus, spending 18X more on it than the War on Poverty and other social programs, which angered MLK and many others who feared that social issues such as the CR movement would be overshadowed by war overseas (Pg. 644)
- Growing domestic (OPPOSITION) to the Great Society (Pg. 645)
- Many in Congress felt LBJ was requesting to many bills to quickly, despite his legislative success record; 181 of 200 of LBJ’s bills passed in 1965 thru 1966
- 1966 midterm elections saw (REPUBLICANS) gain 47 in the House and 3 in the Senate, hurting LBJ (Pg. 645)
- Many complained about Great Society programs and funding and thought the $ should instead be spent on the VIETNAM War (Pg. 645)
- Even with these issues, many Great Society programs endure to this day and bring many benefits to Americans; MediCARE, MediCAID, NEH, and Head Start (Pg. 645)
JFK: (See if you remember without pg. #’s)
GOALS: Containment of COMMUNISM, Reduction of unEMPLOYMENT and inFLATION, Economic growth, Antipoverty programs
ACHIEVEMENTS: Defense of (WEST) Berlin, Removal of Soviet missiles from CUBA, Area ReDEVELOPMENT Act
LBJ: (See if you remember without pg. #’s)
GOALS: Expansion of JFKs (DOMESTIC) agenda, Creation of a Great Society
ACHIEVEMENTS: War on POVERTY, Great Society legislation
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS:
1. (SECT. 1) What role did TV play in the 1960 pres. election? TV helped JFK win a close election over RICHARD NIXON by showing JFK as more presidential.
2. (SECT. 1) How did the establishment of a communist gov in Cuba lead to increased Cold War tensions? Cuba’s proximity to the US made the prospect of Soviet missiles on the island very threatening and increased Cold War tensions.
3. (SECT. 2) How did Kennedy attempt to manage the economy? JFK attempted to manage the ECONOMY by reducing unemployment, curbing inflation, and stimulating growth.
4. (SECT. 2) Why did Kennedy fail to gain passage of most of his legislative initiatives? Opposition from congressional coalition of southern DEMOCRATS and conservative Republicans caused failure to JFK’s attempts to pass most of his legislation.
5. (SECT. 3) How did Pres. LBJ establish continuity between his admin. and that of JFK? Pres. LBJ worked to fulfill JFK’s domestic agenda before moving on to his agenda.
6. (SECT. 3) What were some of the successes of the Great Society programs? Medicare, Medicaid, education efforts, urban renewal and housing programs, support for the arts, and environmental legislation were some of the successes of GREAT Society programs.
REVIEWING THEMES:
1. (GLOBAL RELATIONS) How did Pres. JFK’s Cold War foreign policy resemble that of his predecessors? How did it differ? JFK’s Cold War foreign policy resembled his predecessors with his continuing to build NUCLEAR weapons and opposing communism, while it differed with JFK expanding conventional weapons options and used economic aid.
2. (ECONOMICS) Why did Pres. JFK and LBJ both develop programs to help poor Americans? Pres. JFK and LBJ both developed programs to help (POOR) Americans because of personal concerns, Michael Harrington’s book The Other America, and the belief that the gov had an obligation to (HELP) the poor.
3. (GOVERNMENT) Why did JFK work so hard to control his public image? Pres. JFK knew that his public image augmented his political popularity and authority.
THINKING CRITICALLY:
1. (Identifying POVs) Why did many members of Congress oppose Pres. JFK’s tax cut proposal?
Fear of debt caused many in Congress to oppose JFK’s tax cut proposal.
2. (Categorizing) How did Pres. JFK try to stop the spread of communism? JFK used a flexible RESPONSE (militarily) and with the Peace Corps and the Alliance for Progress (economically) to stop the spread of communism.
3. (Analyzing Info) What were LBJ’s achievements as president? LBJ’s achievements as president included aiding people in poverty; MediCARE and MediCAID; advancing civil and individual rights, as well as education; and increasing environmental protections.
4. (Evaluating) How did the Warren Court decisions in Baker v. Carr, Reynolds v. Sims, and Wesberry v. Sanders strengthen equal participation in government? The Warren Court decisions in Baker v. Carr, Reynolds v. Sims and Wesberry v. Sanders strengthened equal participation in gov by declaring that electoral districts must contain approximately the same # of voters, affirming the “1 person, 1 vote” principle.
5. (Drawing Conclusions) In what ways was the Great Society an extension of the New Deal and the Fair Deal? The Great Society was an extension of the (NEW) Deal with federal programs addressing issues formerly administered by state and local govs. Medicaid was originally part of Pres. Harry Truman’s (FAIR) Deal.