Total Pageviews

Saturday, February 23, 2013

Ch. 19 Notes


CH. 19: THE COLD WAR (1945-1960)
DEFINE: Potsdam Conference, Nuremberg Trials, United Nations (UN), Zionism, Cold War, Satellite Nations, Containment, Berlin Airlift, NATO, Warsaw Pact, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Brinkmanship, CIA, Hydrogen Bomb, National Security Council (NSC), Sputnik, NASA, House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), Hollywood Ten
OVERVIEW READING:
In 1945, the US was a far different country than it subsequently became. Nearly a third of Americans lived in poverty. A third of the country's homes had no running water, two-fifths lacked flushing toilets, and three-fifths lacked central heating. More than half of the nation's farm dwellings had no electricity. Most African Americans still lived in the South, where racial segregation in schools and public accommodations were still the law. The number of immigrants was small as a result of immigration quotas enacted during the 1920s. Shopping malls had not yet been introduced.
Following WW2, the US began an economic boom that brought unparalleled prosperity to a majority of its citizens and raised Americans expectations, breeding a belief that most economic and social problems could be solved. Among the crucial themes of this period were the struggle for equality among women and minorities, and the backlash that these struggles evoked; the growth of the suburbs, and the shift in power from the older industrial states and cities of the Northeast and upper Midwest to the South and West; and the belief that the U.S. had the economic and military power to maintain world peace and shape the behavior of other nations.
THE COLD WAR:
After WW2, the US clashed with the Soviet Union over such issues as the Soviet dominance over Eastern Europe, control of atomic weapons, and the Soviet blockade of Berlin. The establishment of a Communist government in China in 1949 and the North Korean invasion of South Korea in 1950 helped transform the Cold War into a global conflict. The US would confront Communism in Iran, Guatemala, Lebanon, and elsewhere. In an atmosphere charged with paranoia and anxiety, there was deep fear at home about “enemies within” sabotaging US foreign policy and passing atomic secrets to the Soviets.
POSTWAR AMERICA:
During the early 1970s, films like American Graffiti and television shows like Happy Days portrayed the 1950s as a carefree era - a decade of tail-finned Cadillacs, collegians stuffing themselves in phone booths, and innocent tranquility and static charm. In truth, the post-WW2 period was an era of intense anxiety and dynamic, creative change. During the 1950s, African Americans quickened the pace of the struggle for equality by challenging segregation in court. A new youth culture emerged with its own form of music--rock ‘n' roll. Maverick sociologists, social critics, poets, and writers--conservatives as well as liberals--authored influential critiques of American society.
OVERVIEW NOTES:
1. STARTED after World War II (WW2)
A. WAR CRIMES TRIALS:  Trials for those who committed CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY during WW2
B. US occupied from 1945-1952 and worked to rebuild JAPAN’s ECONOMY (breaking up ZAIBATSUs, labor unions, land for farmers), end MILITARISM (abolished ARMY and NAVY), establish a DEMOCRATIC GOV (woman’s suffrage, religious freedoms, new constitution and congress)
C. Establishment of the United Nations (UN)
D. The Founding of the STATE OF ISRAEL
2.  THE COLD WAR:
A. The phrase The Cold War refers to the political and military tensions between the US and the SOVIET UNION and their allies following WW2 and only ending in 1991, when the SU disintegrated
B. It was called a COLD WAR because there was NO DIRECT MILITARY CONFLICT between the US and the Soviet Union, though they did struggle for GLOBAL POWER
C. INDIRECT MILITARY CONFLICTS did take place in KOREA, VIETNAM and elsewhere
3. THE CONFLICT WAS ALSO APPARENT IN OTHER WAYS:
A. In the development of two military coalitions: NATO (the US and its allies) and the WARSAW PACT (the Soviet Union and its supporters)
B. In ESPIONAGE and PROPAGANDA
C. In an ARMS RACE
D. In the SPACE RACE and rivalries in SPORTING EVENTS
4.  CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR:
A. The underlying causes were ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, and PHILOSOPHICAL
differences between the two (2)
- US: Democratic gov, Individual freedom, Capitalist economy
- SOVIETS: (Communist) State-run economy, 1-party rule, and suppression of religion, use of force to crush opposition
B. Other factors that contributed to the Cold War were:
- The ANNEXATION of  Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania by the Soviet Union
- The INSTALLATION OF COMMUNIST GOVS in Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Poland, and Czechoslovakia
5. THE COLD WAR BEGINS:
1. THE CONTAINMENT DOCTRINE: The US commits itself to stopping the
expansion of Communism
2. THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE: The US promises military and economic assistance to any country threatened by Communism
3. THE MARSHALL PLAN (AKA EUROPEAN RECOVERY PLAN): Massive US ECONOMIC AID to Western Europe; FINANCIAL AID – Rebuild: factories, ag production, roads, and bridges
4. DIVISION of Germany into EAST (pro Soviet) and WEST (pro US)
5. BERLIN BLOCKADE: East Germany blocks transportation to West Berlin; US responds with a massive airlift
6. NATO: The US, CANADA, and WESTERN EUROPE form a military alliance; The Soviets and their allies respond by forming the WARSAW PACT
7.  THE COLD WAR ESCALATES:
A. The Communist takeover of CHINA in 1949
B. The Soviet Union develops an ATOMIC BOMB
C. The Korean War breaks out after NORTH KOREA INVADES SOUTH KOREA
D. The COLD WAR expanded into the DEVELOPING WORLD, with the US assisting in the overthrow of govs in IRAN and GUATEMALA
E. The US and SOVIET UNION came close to NUCLEAR WAR when the Soviets installed offensive NUCLEAR MISSILES in CUBA after the US tried to overthrow the Cuban gov in the BAY OF PIGS invasion
YOU NEED TO KNOW:
1. MUTUAL ASSURED DESTRUCTION:  The idea that neither the US or the Soviet Union would use nuclear weapons against the other since both sides would be totally destroyed in the conflict
2. The CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (CIA): Staged covert operations against governments it considered pro-Communist in Iran and Guatemala
3. The RED SCARE:  Fears of communist subversion in the US led to efforts to suppress radicalism in Hollywood and in the labor movement
4. ALGER HISS: Former State Department official accused to passing secrets to the Soviet Union
5. JULIUS and ETHEL ROSENBERG:  Executed for passing nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union
6. MCCARTHYISM:  Wisconsin (WI) Senator JOSEPH MCCARTHY fueled suspicions that COMMUNISTS and SPIES were everywhere
7. RED SCARE: Fear of COMMUNIST SUBVERSION
8. SPACE RACE:  Soviets launched SPUTNIK, the 1st ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE, in 1957
SECTION 1: HEALING THE WOUNDS OF WAR
OCCUPATIONAL RULE:
- GERMANY and JAPAN faced the task of rebuilding – govs, economies, and cities
- POTSDAM CONFERENCE (Truman, Churchill, Stalin): Germany DIVIDED into 4 OCCUPATION ZONES
- BRITISH, FRENCH, and US took control of the WESTERN, industrialized part
- SOVIETS controlled the poorer, more rural EASTERN part; Worries about SU EXPANSION
- US occupied from 1945-1952 and worked to rebuild JAPAN’s ECONOMY end MILITARISM, establish a DEMOCRATIC GOV
WAR CRIMES TRIALS:
- NUREMBERG TRIALS (GERMAN war crimes trials): Many tried, jailed, sentenced to death, though many escaped to LATIN AMERICA
- TRIALS IN TOKYO: 7 sentenced to death and 20 jailed
- Many thought more Germans and Japanese should face more PROSECUTION…
- …Set important STANDARDS for INTERNATIONAL LAW and the CONDUCT OF WAR; Countries and individuals can be held accountable for their ACTIONS DURING WAR; Cannot just “FOLLOW ORDERS”
UN: INTERNATIONAL Org for PEACE
- GENERAL ASSEMBLY (includes all member nations) and SECURITY COUNCIL (5 permanent members – US, Soviet Union, Britain, France China – and 10 rotating members; addresses military and political problems and has VETO POWER over the General Assembly)
FOUNDING OF ISRAEL:
- After WW2, European Jews settle in Palestine
- UN creates PARTIAN PLAN (ZIONISM) for Palestine
- Arab countries’ response: Reject UN plan
- British forces withdraw from Palestine
- State of Israel proclaimed
- Arab countries’ response: Refuses to recognize Israel and attacks Israel
- 1949 UN plan divides Jerusalem; Problems remain to this day
SECTION 2: THE COLD WAR BEGINS
ROOTS OF THE COLD WAR:
- Intense RIVALRY between the US and the SOVIET UNION
- This competition for GLOBAL POWER and INFLUENCE became the “COLD WAR”
- Soviet EXAPANSION fueled US mistrust; US worked hard to strengthen Germany
- SATELLITE NATIONS: Buffer Zone for SU western border (Iron Curtain)
- US implemented a CONTAINMENT strategy to restrict the expansion of Soviet COMMUNISM
DEADLOCK OVER ATOMIC WEAPONS:
- After WW2, the Soviets begin to DEVELOP ATOMIC TECHNOLOGY; US L (mad)
CONTAINMENT AROUND THE WORLD: Communism threatening
- TRUMAN and the US: more aggressive foreign policy
- COMMUNSIM in the Mediterranean
- TRUMAN DOCTRINE: Helps Greece and Turkey
- COMMUNISM in Europe: ECONOMIC issues caused this fear
- The MARSHALL PLAN hoped to fix issues
CRISIS IN BERLIN:
- Non-Soviet zones of Germany grew stronger; US wanted to expand to the West
- Soviets (Western zone): Not happy and blocked off Berlin
- BERLIN AIRLIFT: US and British flying in supplies; Soviets embarrassed L
- Germany divided into EAST and WEST (would last for more than 40 years)
- US shifted from ECONOMIC RECOVERY to MILITARY SECURITY
- NATO formed in 1949
- Soviets responded with the WARSAW PACT
SECTION 3: THE COLD WAR TURNS HOT
COMMUNIST VICTORY IN CHINA:
- Unstable republic; Established in 1911
- Civil War between NATIONALIST (Chiang Kai-shek) and COMMUNIST (Mao Zedong)
- Nationalists and Communists, however, did cooperate to resist the JAPANESE
- Most of China under Mao’s control by 1949; Retreat of Chiang’s forces to Taiwan
- Establishment of PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA; US rejected this gov
KOREAN WAR BEGINS:
- (1945) Japanese pushed out by the US and Soviets; 2 Zones: Soviets in the N and the US in the S
- Division meant to be TEMPORARY, but COLD WAR TENSIONS made it last
- N (Communist, led by Kim Il Sung) and S (US supported, led by Syngman Rhee) set up separate govs
- US did not want ECONOMICALLY UNSTABLE S to fall; Fear of communism being emboldened to fight closer to our shores
- N invades S; US (led by MacArthur), as well as UN, throws support to the S
- Mostly N winning, though settled into a bitter STALEMATE
ENDING THE KOREAN WAR:
- MacArthur wanted to expand the war, while Truman feared it would result in WW3; Truman removes MacArthur after he delivered an ultimatum to N Korea
- The war became the major issue in the election of 1952
- DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER (R, #34) – “I Like Ike;” E wins big
- Used force, bombings and nuclear threats, to help end the Korean War
- Korea divided at the 38th PARALLEL (nothing changed); Huge toll on ALL forces
FIGHTING COMMUNISM ABROAD:
- Eisenhower viewed NUCLEAR ARMS and TECHNOLOGY as the DETERRENT to the expansion of communism; BRINKMANSHIP
- CIA covert ops in IRAN and GUATEMALA; Caused lots of ANTI-US SENTIMENT
- Egypt nationalizes SUEZ CANAL (threatened W oil trade)
- US uses DIPLOMACY, while, Britain, France, and Israel use FORCE; CEASE-FIRE ends the crisis
- Soviets GAIN INFLUENCE in the MIDDLE EAST
- NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV comes to power in the Soviet Union
- Fear(s) of NUCLEAR WAR
- Eisenhower Re-elected in 1956
A BREIF THAW IN THE COLD WAR:
- Late 1950s: US and SU tried to improve relations with VP Nixon visiting SU and Khrushchev visiting the US
- Soviets shoot down US spy plane; SU L; Relations bad again
SECTION 4: THE COLD WAR AT HOME
COLD WAR FEARS:
- Peacetime REARMAMENT: DOD, NSC, and CIA
- RED SCARE: New fears of communism in the US
- HUAC and the HOLLYWOOD 10: HUAC investigated charges that HOLLYWOOD was full of COMMUNISTS
- H10 went to jail rather than talk; BLACKLISTED; Careers destroyed
- HUAC investigated/lowered #s in peace orgs, political groups, and labor unions and also investigated individuals accused of spying
MCCARTHYISM:
- Sen. McCarthy helped fuel suspicions of COMMUNISTS and SPIES EVERYWHERE
- Claimed that many working in the US STATE DEPT. and FEDERAL GOV were COMMUNISTS (100s lost jobs and reputations)
- Lack of “HARD EVIDENCE”
- Opinion turned against MCCARTHY when he questioned whether there were communists in the Army; Eventually chastised by the Senate; Inquiries over
NUCLEAR ANXIETY:
- NUCLEAR ARMS RACE between the US and the Soviets
- (1950) US scientists begin work on the HYDROGEN (H)-BOMB
- J. Robert Oppenheimer (creator)
- 1,000 X more powerful than the bombs that hit Hiroshima and Nagasaki
- Anxiety caused by nuclear fears caused many to find COMFORT IN RELIGION
- More and more RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS BUILT; BILLY GRAHAM led
- This is when the phrases “ONE NATION UNDER GOD” (added to the PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE) and “IN GOD WE TRUST” (added to US COINS) occurred
- DUCK AND COVER added in schools
- Backyard BOMB/FALLOUT SHELTERS sprang up
- H-Bomb tests in the PACIFIC; Realization that no one would be safe
- SPUTNIK; Made many in the US worried that we were falling behind the Soviets
- Soviets launch 2nd satellite, while US finally launches EXPLORER 1 (1958)
- NASA created (at Eisenhower’s request)
- Millions of $ in US to IMPROVE EDUCATION in science, math, and foreign languages
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS:
1. (Sect. 1) How successful was the United Nations (UN) in stabilizing the conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine (Explain)? The UN helped create Israel but failed to prevent the outbreak of the Arab-Israeli War or to end that region’s tensions
2. (Sect. 2) What were the main causes of the Cold War? The economic, political, and philosophical differences between the US and the Soviet Union
3. (Sect. 3) What strategies did Pres. Eisenhower use to slow the spread of communism? Diplomacy and covert operations
4. (Sect. 4) Why was Senator McCarthy able to generate so much attention with his accusations? Because many Americans were fearful of communism and the power of the Soviet Union
5. (Sect. 4) How did the US gov respond to the launch of Sputnik? By creating NASA and passing the National Defense Education Act
REVIEWING THEMES:
1. (Global Relations) What other countries became involved in the conflict between the US and the Soviet Union? The nations in NATO and the Warsaw Pact, East and West Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Iran, North and South Korea, and Turkey
2. (Government) How did the US gov’s response to Cold War tensions lead to limitations on civil liberties? The search for communists resulted in infringement of civil rights
3. (Science, Tech, and Society) How did the development of atomic technology affect daily life in the US? Put a new premium on science and math education, contributed to the popularity of science-fiction literature, and led to widespread fears about the possibility of a nuclear attack

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.