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Monday, February 18, 2013

Ch. 18 Notes for You to Check


DIRECTIONS: 1. Define the words below and staple to packet. 2. Read the overview notes. 3. Complete the fill in the blanks and circle the correct answers (where needed).
DEFINE (On a separate page): Selective Training and Service Act, Braceros, Zoot-Suit Riots, Internment, Office of War Info, Sonar, Genocide, D-Day, Holocaust, Island-Hopping, Kamikaze, Manhattan Project
SECTION 1: Early Difficulties
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES:
ALLIES:
- ADVANTAGES:
- US had tremendous PRODUCTION CAPACITY (Pg. 528)
- Soviet Union had vast MANPOWER, Due to the enormous size of their military
- Britain and SU had not been defeated by Germany
- DISADVANTAGES:
- Faced a long, drawn-out (FIGHT) WAR on SEVERAL FRONTS (Pg. 528)
- Axis held firm control of conquered land spread over an enormous area; Europe and the Pacific
AXIS:
- ADVANTAGES:
- BETTER PREPARED for war
- Had firm and secure control over INVADED, or conquered, AREAS (Pg. 528)
- REARMED since the 1930s; Had airfields, barracks, and military training centers
- Economies were ready for war
- DISADVANTAGES:
- Had to DEFEND MULTIPLE (2 active) FRONTS (Pg. 528)
MOBILIZING FOR WAR:
- PRODUCTION BOOM: Helped END the GREAT DEPRESSION by producing… (Pg. 529)
- Ammo, weapons, aircrafts, cars, planes, jeeps, shipyards, subs, warships, merchant ships
- UNEMPLOYMENT (FELL)
- Farms expanded PRODUCTION for US AND ALLIES (Pg. 529)
- GOV EXPANSION:
- 3X # of FEDERAL EMPLOYEES (1940-45) (Pg. 529)
- GOV DIRECTED: Channel resources into MILITARY GOODS/PRODUCTS (Pg. 529)
- i.e. increase production; War Production Board – WPB; and…
- Coordinated PRODUCTION of CONSUMER GOODS
- ECONOMY:
- Higher TAXES, to pay for war, and more people paying them (Pg. 530)
- Sale of WAR BONDS; Kept INFLATION LOW (Pg. 530)
- Gov agency set MAX PRICE on CONSUMER GOODS… (Pg. 530)
- RATIONED scarce ITEMS/GOODS (Dec. 1941)…
- Gov FROZE WAGES (Pg. 530); All to also help keep INFLATION LOW
- ARMY:
- Recruited SOLDIERS (Pg. 530)
- Called National Guard to active DUTY
- Selective Service and Training Act
- 2/3s DRAFTED and the rest volunteers; 300,000 women (Pg. 530)
WAR IN THE PACIFIC:
- JAPAN attacked: Pearl Harbor, Philippines, Burma, Borneo, Netherlands, East Indies, Wake Island, Hong Kong, Java, New Guinea; Japanese onslaught of the Pacific region (Pg. 531)
- DOUGLAS MACARTHUR (Gen.); Command of all US Army in the PACIFIC
- Early US failure but, “I shall RETURN” (Pg. 531)
- BATAAN DEATH MARCH: Japan’s badly treating captured US and Filipino soldiers
HALTING THE JAPANESE ADVANCE:
- Led by CHESTER NIMITZ Commander of US Pacific Fleet, the US recovered quickly from the attack on Pearl Harbor (Pg. 532)
- THE BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA: Important (ALLIED) victory
- NIMITZ was (AGGRESSIVE) and forced mistakes (Pg. 532)
- Stopped the Japanese advance on Australia
- THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY:
- Japan launched 2-PRONGED ATTACK to DIVIDE/TRAP the US Pacific fleet (Pg. 532)
- US intercepted Japanese CODES and knew what was coming
- AMBUSHED the Japanese; US (VICTORY) (Pg. 533)
- Japan lost ships, planes, skilled pilots
- GUADALCANAL:
- 1st major US offensive; Ferocious fighting; US (VICTORY) (Pg. 533)
- Battles in the Pacific finally in the Allies’ favor
EARLY FIGHTING IN EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN:
- AXIS controlled, by the time of Pearl Harbor: Europe (most), the Mediterranean, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, and Greece; At 1st – More and more Axis victories
- German U-BOATS in the Atlantic hurting the US and British (Pg. 533)
- NORTH AFRICA: Allied victory at the Battle of EL ALAMEIN (Egypt) against German and Italian troops which changed the direction of the war (Pg. 533)
- STALINGRAD: Key Soviet city
- Germany pushed further into the SOVIET Union (1941)… Towards oil fields (Pg. 534)
- Bad conditions for all; Neither the Soviets or the Germans would SURRENDER (Pg. 534)
- Bad winter and SU resolve beat Germany - 200,000 casualties
- “Before Alamein we never had a victory. After Alamein we never had a defeat
– WINSTON CHURCHILL, British Prime Minister - PM (Pg. 534)
SECTION 2: The Home Front
PROMOTING THE WAR: (Pg. 535)
- Most in US (SUPPORTED) the war; Gov tried to keep MORALE high
- Especially w/ EARLY SETBACKS (Pg. 535)
- Gov encouraged the MEDIA/ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY to help promote the war to the public with patriotic themes in movies, music, radio (Pg. 535); OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION
LIFE DURING WARTIME:
- Many CUT CONSUMPTION of LUXURIES and NECESSITIES (Pg. 536)
- People grew their own veggies; VICTORY GARDENS (Pg. 536)
- AIR-RAID drills and nighttime BLACKOUTS
- People worked (LONGER) hours
- NONFICTION became more popular than fiction; Extensive INTEREST IN THE WAR
- PAPERBACK BOOKS became more popular than hardcover; PATRIOTIC Entertainment
ROSIE THE RIVETER: (Pg. 538)
- Symbol of PATRIOTIC (FEMALE) defense WORKERS, who had replaced soldiers
- More and more (WOMEN) in the WORKFORCE
- Many were working outside the home for the 1st time
- New sense of pride
DISCRIMINATION DURING THE WAR:
- RACIAL TENSIONS (DID NOT) disappear (Pg. 538)
- More than 1 mill AFRICAN AMERICANS and 300,000 MEXICAN AMERICANS
- More OPPORTUNITIES for AA - ARMED forces, INDUSTRIAL jobs - but… (Pg. 538)
- Segregated units, low-level work, unfair hiring
- Gov put FAIR EMPLOYMENT LAWS into place; FEPC
- AFRICAN AMERICANS moved NORTH for more opportunities
- MEXICAN AMERICANS moving from SW to the MIDWEST and the WEST Coast (Pg. 539)
- Issues w/ housing, jobs, and day-to-day lives
- ZOOT-SUIT RIOTS caused bitter resentment towards many in the US (Pg. 540)
JAPANESE AMERICAN RELOCATION:
- More “HOME-FRONT” intolerance
- INTERNMENT of JAPANESE Americans in detention camps; 1942-45 (Pg. 540)
- No evidence of DISLOYALTY; Supreme Court upheld
SECTION 3: THE WAR IN EUROPE:
FIGHTING IN THE ATLANTIC:
- Axis attacks took a huge Allied toll
- With SONAR, against German U-Boats, (ALLIES) turned the tide in 1943 (Pg. 543)
- SEA DOMINANCE allowed the Allies to protect cargo ships and bomb Axis vessels
- Allied wins in N AFRICA and ITALY, led by Generals Eisenhower and Patton
FIGHTING IN THE AIR:
- 1943 was an important year with Allies conducting strategic bombing(s) to destroy important (GERMAN) cities and military production (Pg. 543)
THE NORMANDY INVASION (D-DAY): (Saving Private Ryan)
- June 6, 1944 (Pg. 544)
- Invaded GERMAN-OCCUPIED FRANCE (Known as Operation Overlord)
- Used a DUMMY INVASION as a decoy
- High casualties but ULTIMATE (SUCCESS)
THE HOLOCAUST:
- (1941) Germans began GENOCIDE against the JEWS (Schindler’s List) (Pg. 545)
- AUSCHWITZ and other DEATH CAMPS
- Many Jews GASED; 6 mill; 2/3s of Europe’s Jewish and many others killed
DEFEATING GERMANY:
- THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE: Clear that the German offensive had failed and the end was reasonably near (Pg. 546)
- The YALTA CONFERENCE: Plan for postwar peace; FDR (US), Churchill (Britain), Stalin (SU)
- Divide and occupy GERMANY (Pg. 546)
- FDR wins 4th term b/c of this (Pg. 548)
- Allies VS. Germans (still deadly attacks)
- US/SU winning, though US starts to fear political ambitions of SU w/ defeated territories
- April 30, 1945: Hitler commits SUICIDE (Pg. 548)
- Unconditional German surrender on May 7
- The next day, V-E; VICTORY IN EUROPE Day: formal end of the war (Pg. 548)
SECTION 4: Victory in Asia
PACIFIC OFFENSIVES:
- Allies going after Japan
- AIR and SEA POWER key to victory
- ISLAND-HOPPING; Allied victories in many islands, then offensive began in Japan (Pg. 549)
- MacArthur “returns” and Allies recapture the PHILIPPINES(Pg. 550); Victories in the Pacific; Helped the US strategically bomb Japanese home islands
- BATTLE OF IWO JIMA: Fierce Japanese fighting but Allied victory (Pg. 552)
- BATTLE OF OKINAWA: Kamikaze attacks from the Japanese (Pg. 552)
- OKINAWA was the BLOODIEST BATTLE of the Pacific War; 150,000 dead
- FDR dies; Harry Truman new Pres.
- W/ continued Japanese willpower, NEW QUESTION emerges: Should we use the A-BOMB?
- MANHATTAN Project; Albert Einstein; Fears of Germans making an A-bomb (Pg. 553)
- Japan refused unconditional surrender
- ENOLA GAY: Dropped A-bomb on HIROSHIMA (Pg. 553)
- 3 days later: 2nd bomb dropped on NAGASAKI; SU declares war on Japan ) (Pg. 553)
- Japan surrenders
WW2: THE FINAL COSTS:
- The most devastating war in history
- Enormous human and economic losses
- Human Costs:
- Killed millions of people
- Resulted in the Holocaust
- Wounded many soldiers and citizens
- Economic Costs:
- Destroyed many nations’ economies
- Ruined countless cities
- Destroyed national infrastructures
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS:
1. (Sect. 1) What advantages did the Axis Powers have over the Allies at the beginning of WW2? The Axis Powers held firm control of the areas they had (free/invaded) and had better prepared military forces
2. (Sect. 1) What steps did the US gov take to mobilize for war? Created the War Production BOARD (WPB) and the Office of War Mobilization, passed the Selective Service and Training Act, expanded the income tax, sold WAR bonds, and instituted rationing during its mobilization effort
3. (Sect. 2) What changes did WW2 bring to the Amer. home front? WW2 changed the content of entertainment, the availability of consumer goods, and the WAGES people earned; i.e. salary
4. (Sect. 3) How did the Nazis carry out the Holocaust? The Nazis arrested millions of people, mostly JEWS, and sent them to concentration (death) camps
5. (Sect. 3) What were the major turning points in the war with Germany? The major turning points of WW2 included: victories in El Alamein and Stalingrad, the Axis surrender in North Africa, the Allied invasions of Italy and Normandy
6. (Sect. 4) What was the Allied strategy in the Pacific? ISLAND-hopping
REVIEWING THEMES:
1. (Global Relations) How did the Allies pool their resources to win WW2? The US provided the Allies with military supplies and food, and the Soviet Union provided the Allied war effort with millions of soldiers; Allied soldiers from different countries also served and fought together in a # of military campaigns
2. (Constitutional Heritage) How did wartime conditions lead to the internment of Japanese Americans? Wartime conditions aggravated anti-Japanese prejudice in the US, thereby prompting many Americans to question the loyalty of Japanese Americans. In turn, the gov interned Japanese Americans living on the West Coast
3. (Science, Tech, and Society) What role did nuclear weapons play in the Allied victory during WW2? The dropping of A-BOMBS on Japan ended the war without a costly invasion of Japan

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