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Monday, February 4, 2013

Ch. 17 Notes


CH. 17: THE ROAD TO WAR (1921-1941)
DEFINE: Isolationism, Disarmament, Nationalize, Caudillos, Good Neighbor Policy, Totalitarian State, Anti-Semitism, Fascist Party, Nazi Party, Appeasement, Nonaggression Pact, Blitzkrieg, Axis Powers, Allied Powers
SECTION 1: THE SEARCH FOR PEACE
LEGACIES OF WW1:
- More than 8 million (112,000 US) died in WW1
- US gov INCREASED in SIZE and AUTHORITY (Espionage and Sedition Acts)
- Postwar CHAOS in GOVS; COMMUNISM in RUSSIA
- US worried about being DRAGGED BACK IN TO WAR
- Started a policy of ISOLATIONISM (1920s-30s)
- US SHUNNED invites in to INTERNATIONAL ORGS. after WW1
PROMOTING PEACE:
- Throughout this time, many tensions and issues were felt by ALL involved
- US used DIPLOMACY to promote WORLD PEACE
- DISARMAMENT; TREATIES for reductions from ALL sides; Not all successful
WAR DEBTS AND REPARATIONS:
- US went from having to borrow $ from FRANCE/BRITAIN (1800s) to being a “CREDITOR”  - i.e. the lender - nation (1900s)
- ALLIES owed US WAR DEBTS; Only way to pay was to collect REPARATIONS from GERMANY ($32 bill)
- GERMANY borrowed $ from BRITAIN
- Germany printed more $, which caused massive INFLATION; $ worth less
- ADOLF HITLER: Embittered WW1 veteran; Tried to overthrow German gov
- WORLDWIDE DEPRESSION in the 1930s caused more $ problems for ALL
SECTION 2: RELATIONS W/ LATIN AMERICA
INTERVENTION IN NICARAGUA:
- While the US ISOLATED itself from EUROPE and ASIA, Pres. COOLIDGE, HOOVER, and FDR all tried to IMPROVE RELATIONS with Latin America
- US played a big role in their POLITICS
- Back and forth relations; GOOD RELATIONS from the mid-1930s-1979
A CHANGE IN POLICY:
- GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY (FDR): Treaties w/ CUBA and PANAMA; Removal of MARINES from HAITI
- US companies: Deep in LA ECONOMICALLY and POLITCALLY
- US has ALLIANCES w/ LANDOWNERS and POLITICIANS
- Often GOVERNED the countries that they were in
- Test of the GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY in MEXICO
- Mex. opted to NATIONALIZE their OIL FIELDS
- Risked angering the US and US oil companies in Mexico
- Companies mad but FDR acknowledge Mexico’s right to control their resources
NEW LATIN AMERICAN LEADERS:
- 1929 Stock Market crash hurt LATIN AMERICA
- PRICES of bananas, coffee, and other staples FELL drastically
- FARMERS hurt; Inequality spreading; People mad; SOCIAL and ECONOMIC Effects
- CAUDILLOS put in place to keep people down; US not happy but…
 - US usually supported b/c of it would help US businesses POLITICAL Effect
SECTION 3: THE RISE OF MILITARISM
MUSSOLINI IN ITALY:
- FASCIST Party: fought out communism
- Mussolini PRIME MINISTER; Dictator
- Italy: IMPERIALIST AMBITION in ETHIOPIA
- US did not like but did not want to be drawn in
- Lack of US support cause other fascists (i.e. GERMANY) that AGGRESSION would GO UNPUNISHED (lead in to WW2)
STALIN IN THE SOVIET UNION: (1920s)
- LENIN (leader of the Bolshevik Rev) dies and…
- JOSEPH STALIN emerges as leader
- Makes the SOVIET UNION into a TOTALITARIAN STATE
- Took away private LAND and RIGHTS
 - Crushed all opposition w/ RED ARMY and police
HITLER IN GERMANY:
- Hitler became CHANCELLOR in Germany (1932)
- Hitler’s views win him many supporters
- Nazi Party wins 40% of the vote in national elections
- NATIONAL SOCIALIST PARTY (NAZI)
- Mein Kampf (My Struggle); Blamed Jews, Communists, and intellectuals
- Gov called 3rd REICH
- Nazi STORM TROOPERS crush all opposition
- Took over the RHINELAND, AUSTRIA, and went after the SUDETENLAND
- ANTI-SEMITISIM spreading in Germany/the region
- Started going after Jews, who tried to flee (many did not escape)
FRANCO IN SPAIN:
- FASCISM spread to SPAIN due to bitter political conflicts
- FRANCISCO FRANCO (Gen.) took over through the SPANISH Civil War
- US did not want to join; no DIRECT-AID to SPAINISH resistance fighters, though some did go help/fight
- Stalin declares that COMMUNISM and FASCISM are INCOMPATIBLE
- Losing side in Spain mad at the WEST for not coming to help
MILITARISTS IN JAPAN:
- W/ GERMAN threat looming in EUROPE; JAPANESE expansion loomed in ASIA
- Japanese MILITARY FORCES gained increasing power
- Wanted LESS FOREIGN IMPORTS, I.E. less Western influence, and direct control over territories that made iron, petroleum, rubber, and timber
- Poor ECONOMY gave JAPANESE public support for IMPERIALISM and began NAVAL BUILDUP, which went AGAINST TREATIES they previously signed
SECTION 4: WAR BREAKS OUT
THE RESPONSE TO FASCISM:
- European leaders adopt a policy of appeasement
- US Congress passes neutrality laws
- European nations speed up rearmament
- SOVIETS and US mend fences
THE RESPONSE TO FASCISM: (EUROPE/ASIA): Shake up of Inter. relations
- SU aligns w/ US (over Japan)
- Fascists align (GERMANY/ITALY); AXIS Powers (Japan later joined)
- MUNICH CONF.: Gave Germany the SUDETENLAND
- Policy of APPEASEMENT (not all agreed w/ this – wrong move)
- UNDERESTIMATED Hitler
- US passes NUETRALITY laws (public wanted), though FDR wanted action
WAR!: US public opinion started to change as Germany’s aggression increased
- Britain/France: We go to war if Germany attacked Poland; Wanted to include SU
- Surprise: Soviets decline and sign NONAGRESSION PACT w/ Germany
- Germany invades Poland; Britain/France declare war (WW2 begins)
- SU: Invades Poland; Occupied Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania; Annexed Finland
- US Response: FDR wanted US to be able to export military supplies (amend the NEUTRALITY act); Congress did
- US makes deals w/ Britain (no $) to lend/lease arms and supplies
- FDR runs for unprecedented 3rd term; promises to keep US out of the conflict
- FDR wins; Conflict, SADLY, unavoidable
- Belgium, Denmark, N France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway were occupied by Germany now (huge expansion)
TENSION MOUNT IN THE ATLANTIC:
- As GERMAN ATTACKS increase, so did US AID to the Allies
- German subs ruling the NORTH ATLANTIC
- SHOCKER: Germany goes against its deal w/ SOVIETS and invades in JUNE 1941
- SOVIETS have problems initially fighting
JAPAN ATTACKS:
- JAPAN continues to EXPAND (FRENCH INDOCHINA)
- FDR freezes their US assets and places an embargo; Japan does same to US
- Japan starts to secretly plan to attack
- Demands US unfreeze (last chance at peace); US declines
- Dec. 7, 1941 (“A date which will live in infamy”): Japan attacks PEARL HARBOR
- Destroyed core of the US PACIFIC FLEET
- US DECLARES WAR on Japan
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS:
1. (Sect. 1) What factors encouraged the US to follow a foreign policy of isolationism after WW1? The factors that encouraged the US to follow a foreign policy of isolationism after WW1 included: regret over entering WW1 and the fear of being dragged into another foreign conflict
2. (Sect. 2) What economic and political role did the US play in Latin America? US gov intervened in political situations (POLITICAL role); US businesses were major investors (ECONOMIC role)
3. (Sect. 2) Why did Mexican pres. Lazaro Cardenas nationalize his country’s oil fields in 1938? Mexico’s president nationalized his country’s oil fields in response to foreign oil companies refusal to raise wages and improve working conditions for Mexican oil workers
4. (Sect. 3) How did dictators come to power in Europe in the 1930s? Dictators came to power in Europe in the 1930s through the use of force or public dissatisfaction over economic issues
5. (Sect. 3) What aggressive actions did Japan take during the 1930s? Aggressive actions that Japan took during the 1930s included: invading Manchuria in 1931, initiating a naval buildup, and occupying Nanjing in 1937
6. (Sect. 4) Why did the US enter WW2? The US entered WW2 because of the growth of dictatorships, Germany’s advances into France and its attacks on Britain led the US to amend neutrality laws and provide supplies to the Allies, but it was the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor that brought the US into the war
REVIEWING THEMES:
1. (Global Relations) In what ways did countries promote world peace after WW1? Countries promoted world peace after WW1 by limiting naval armaments, joining the World Court, and signing the Kellogg-Briand Pact
2. (Economics) How did economic problems contribute to political unrest after WW1? Economic problems led to the rise of totalitarian leaders
3. (Citizenship) How did the fascist dictatorships in Europe restrict civil liberties? Fascist dictatorships in Europe restricted civil liberties by limiting free speech and voting, banning strikes, and persecuting religious or ethnic groups

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