Total Pageviews

Monday, January 28, 2013

Ch. 16 Notes


CH. 16: THE NEW DEAL (1933-1939)
DEFINE: Bank Holiday, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), New Deal, Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Sit-down Strike, Works Progress Admin. (WPA), Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), Dust Bowl, Regionalists
1. The NEW DEAL was Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt's (FDR) response to the GREAT DEPRESSION, which involved: (Stimulus Programs)
a. JOBS PROGRAMS to put the jobless to work
b. REFORM EFFORTS: To regulate the STOCK MARKET, end CHILD LABOR, and guarantee the right of workers to UNIONIZE
c. ECONOMIC SECURITY PROGRAMS: Insured BANK DEPOSITS and SOCIAL SECURITY, providing old age pensions.
d. OTHER REFROMS included gov. backed HOME LOANS
OF NOTE:
1. To raise FARM INCOMES, the New Deal paid farmers to take LAND OUT OF PRODUCTION under the Agricultural Adjustment Act
2. SOCIAL SECURITY, a New Deal Program, provided INCOME to the ELEDERLY
3. The Fair Labor Standards Act guaranteed American workers the right to UNIONIZE and banned CHILD LABOR
4. CRITICS of the New Deal were in constant fear that gov was becoming too big and overstepping its bounds
5. FDR and the Supreme Court did not get along
SECTION 1: Restoring Hope
FDR VS. THE EMERGENCY:
                  - FDR and his “NEW DEAL”; Dealt w/ banking 1st
                                    - BANKING: BANK HOLIDAY (Banks reopened)
                                                      - FDIC (Confidence increased w/ deposits insured)
                                                      - Loans to homeowners and farmers
HELPING THE NEEDY: (Help for the UNEMPLOYED and FAMILIES)
                  - DIRECT FEDERAL AID (GRANTS not loans)
                                    - People DISLIKED b/c they wanted “jobs, not handouts”
                                    - CCC and CWA created to give people work
HELPING THE NATION: (REFORM and RECOVERY programs)
                  - FDR based ND on the theories of JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES
                                    - Gov must spend $ to encourage INVESTMENT and CONSUMPTION
                  - REFORMING Business: SEC
                  - STIMULATING Business and REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT: NIRA (PWA/NRA)
                                    - Struck down by the SC
AGRICULTURAL RECOVERY:
                  - FDR called for FARMERS to CUT PRODUCTION
                  - AAA (Pays farmers SUBSIDIES)
                                    - Prices and income raised… however…
                                    - Critics of the New Deal complained and the SC struck down the AAA
                                    - … Previewing an upcoming battle between FDR and the SC
REVITALIZATION:
- TN River valley scarred by deforestation, flooding, disease, illiteracy, malnutrition, and poverty
- TVA created to remake the economic and social life of the region
- Largest of the early ND programs
- Critics thought gov was abusing its power (SC does nothing this time)

TVA GOALS FOR THE TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY:
                  - Combat ILLITERACY, MALARIA, and SOIL EROSION
                  - Provide ELECTRICITY, FLOOD CONTROL, and RECREATIONAL FACILITIES
                  - Improve STANDARD OF LIVING
EQUALITY:
                  - DISCRIMINATION was still an issue (FDR does not do much)
                  - AFRICAN AMERICANS do make some gains
                                    - Many hired by ND programs
                                    - FDR hires many to gov jobs
                                    - FDR’s wife Eleanor: Championed civil rights and helping people
                  - INDIANS struggling
                                    - Bad housing, healthcare, and malnutrition
                                    - John Collier
                                    - Congress passed laws to help
SECTION 2: New Challenges
CRITICISMS: (Both CONSERVATIVES (RIGHT) and LIBERALS (LEFT)
                  - Help for the elderly, hurting businesses, wealthy not taxed enough
2ND NEW DEAL: 1934 election brought in more Dems and expectations
                  - Emphasized LONG-TERM reform
                  - Jobs (PUBLIC-WORKS programs): WPA, NYA
                  - The ELDERLY: SOCIAL SECURITY (pensions)
                  - Program/laws to keep UTILITY COSTS LOW (i.e. electricity)
                  - Raised TAXES on the WEALTHY
                  - FDR easily won reelection in 1936
FDR VS. THE SUPREME COURT: Wanted to “REFORM” the court
                  - FDR asked Congress for the power to add more justices to the SC
                                    - DID NOT like that they went against the ND
                  - Dems and Repubs were both mad at FDRs “COURT-PACKING” plan
                  - Congress did not pass plan AND SC sided with the gov ND laws
                  - Problem averted; ND constitutional; Several died or retired anyways
EFFECTS OF THE 2ND NEW DEAL:
                  - LABOR: (AFL and CIO and UAW) going after UNION rights
- FARMERS: “Soil conservation” (crop reduction), subsidies, surplus storage, loans, and aid for migrants, sharecroppers, and tenant farmers
SECTION 3: Life in the New Deal Era
NEW DEAL PROGRAMS:
                  - Brought ELECTRICITY to RURAL areas
                  - Broke down CLASS BARRIERS
                  - Helped MODERNIZE the SOUTH
                  - Boosted FAMILY INCOMES so that children could stay in school
                  - Provided JOBS, improved people’s sense of SELF-WORTH
THE DUST BOWL AND MIGRATION:
- Mass MIGRATION to CA spurred on by giant DUST STORMS and DROUGHT in the GREAT PLAINS
- Soil erosion programs instituted and many trees planted… worked well
                  - Too late for many though, who packed and moved (mostly) W
- Mex. Migrants facing discrimination and a lack of work
                  - Increased competition from FILIPINOS; Both groups faced problems
LIFE IN PICS/MOVIES:
- Grim experiences in rural areas became great subjects for photographers and filmmakers
                  - Unemployed men
                  - Hungry children
                  - Exhausted women
                  - Gov hired FILMMAKERS; Helped promote FDR’s programs
EVALUATING THE NEW DEAL:
                  - Improved many’s self-worth by getting people back to work… However…
                  - Critics charged the ND created a WELFARE STATE,
                                    - A system of gov institutions that provide for the basic needs of citizens
                  - DEFICIT SPENDING,
                                    - Having the gov spend more $ than it receives in revenue
                  - Too much gov in business… However…
- **Not 100% effective, but had many successes and many programs are still around today (FDIC, Social Security, SEC, people having electricity)
SECTION 4: The New Deal and the Arts
WPA PROGRAMS:
                  - Designed to help the ARTS (in ND programs, schools, and public buildings)
                                    - Writing, theater, music, and visual arts
PORTRAYING THE DEPRESSION:
       - NOVELS
                  - Themes of the depression, experiences of minorities, economic chaos
                                    - John Steinbeck, “The Grapes of Wrath”
                                    - Zora Neal Hurston, “Their Eyes Were Watching God”
                                    - Margaret Mitchell, “Gone With the Wind”
       - FILMS
                  - “ESCAPIST” themes, social issues
                                    - “Gone With the Wind” and “The Wizard of Oz”
                                    - Marx Bros. and Ginger Rogers
                                    - Frank Capra (“Mr. Deeds Goes to Town” and “Mr. Smith Goes to Wash.”)
MUSIC:
                  - Incorporated Amer. traditions and sounds
                  - Aaron Copland (Composer)
                  - GOSPEL - Thomas Dorsey and Mahalia Jackson
                  - JAZZ - Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman
PAINTERS:
                  - Jacob Lawrence (Harlem Renaissance)
                  - Georgia O’Keeffe (Paintings of the SW)
                  - Regionalists
                  - Grant Wood (“American Gothic”)
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS:
1. (Sect. 1) How did the Great Depression change the role of the US gov? The gov became more involved in people’s daily lives and with economic policy
2. (Sect. 2) What were some of the major criticisms of the New Deal? Being against big business, not doing enough to control business, and not providing enough relief
3. (Sect. 2) What was Pres. Roosevelt’s “court-packing” plan, and how well did it succeed (and why)? Get rid of the older justices who consistently opposed the New Deal; Most people opposed FDRs efforts
4. (Sect. 3) How effective were New Deal measures in ending the Great Depression? The relieved the suffering of many Americans, but the economy did not fully recover until the US prepared for WW2
5. (Sect. 4) How did novels, plays, and paintings reflect themes of the depression years? Many chronicled the lives of people struggling to survive, and others criticized wealthy business owners or explored major issues
REVIEWING THEMES:
1. (Economics) How did the Roosevelt admin. expand the role of the federal gov in regulating the economy? By providing jobs and wages, allowing businesses to temporarily ignore antitrust laws, initiating public works projects, and providing subsidies to farmers
2. (Constitutional Heritage) Why might the Supreme Court have declared some New Deal measures unconstitutional? Because they interfered with free enterprise and imposed larger taxes on the wealthy
3. (Geography) What effects did migration from the Dust Bowl have on the West Coast? The population of the West Coast increased dramatically

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.