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Friday, January 11, 2013

Ch. 14 Notes


CH. 14: The Jazz Age; The Roaring 20s (1920-1929)
DEFINE: Assembly Line, Model T, Installment Plan, Planned Obsolescence, Flappers, 21st Amendment, Fundamentalism, Scopes Trial, Jazz, Blues, Harlem Renaissance
1. The 1920s was a decade of MAJOR CULTURAL CONFLICTS over:
·       Immigration
·       Alcohol
·       Evolution
·       Race
2. The 1920s also saw the rise of a MODERN CONSUMER CULTURE:
·      Economic Recovery
·      Electricity (became common in homes)
·      Business expansion led to wage increases
·       Consumer products: Automobile
·       Mass culture: radio, movies
·       The Flapper
SECTION 1:
SCIENTIFIC METHOD… to the ASSEMBLY LINE:
            - HENRY FORD
                        - Lowered cost by implementing the SCIENTIFIC METHOD
                                    - ALL work can be broken down to a series of smaller tasks
            - MODEL T - Inexpensive
- ASSEMBLY LINE - Each part done by a different worker; Increased productivity
- Decreased cost of cars
CHANGES IN WORK:
- Increased PRODUCTIVITY (good), REPETITIVNESS (bad) , employee TURNOVER (bad)
            - LITTLE chance for ADVANCEMENT for UNSKILLED workers
            - DISCRIMINATORY HIRING practices for African Americans and immigrants
SOCIETAL CHANGES:
            - Camping and sightseeing (Auto-touring)
            - Teens becoming more INDEPENDENT
            - Fear of a loss of “community” due to cars and people “moving”
CREATING CONSUMERS:
- MARKETING: To make their goods more appealing; Pretty AND functional
1. INSTALLMENT PLAN – Allowed “average” consumers to purchase more expensive items;
2. PLANNED OBSOLESCENCE – Yearly/Annual model change (latest styles)
- ADVERTISING: Fueled the DEMAND for CARS and other CONSUMER GOODS
                        - Everywhere
- Targeted WOMEN; Used PSYCHOLOGY, slogans, jingles, and celebrity testimonials to play on hopes and fears and make you want a product
- RETAIL: Corner stores replaced to meet growing consumer demand
- CHAIN-STYLE grocery stores (HEB, Randalls), QUICK freezing, cellophane
SECTION 2: Life in the 1920s
PROHIBITION: No booze
            - 18TH AMEND.; VOLSTEAD ACT
- AL CAPONE (The mob/BOOTLEGGERS) vs. ELIOT NESS (The Feds)
- PROHIBITION successful in some places, but the bad (gangs, violence, bootlegging) led to a widespread breakdown of law and order
- Prohibition REPEALED by the 21st AMEND.
YOUTH CULTURE: Rejected values and conventions of previous gens.
            - The “NEW WOMAN”
- FLAPPERS (different hair styles, economic independence, new jobs)
            - More people going to COLLEGE
- New LEISURE activities and FADS (dances, beauty contents)
MASS ENTERTAINMENT: More had bigger paychecks and free time and needed things to occupy their free time with
- RADIO (church, news, music, sports); local then national (NBC)
            - Realized ADVERTISING would be profitable
- MOVIES (Mass appeal)
            - New advances
                        - EPICS (10 Commandments); MUSICALS; and NEWSREELS
                        - SILENT FILMS (Charlie Chaplin); then “TALKIES” (The Jazz Singer)
- SPORTS (New Technology)
            - Pro and Collegiate FOOTBALL
            - BASEBALL (Babe Ruth, Ty Cobb, Lou Gehrig)
                        - “Black Sox” scandal almost destroyed (“Say it ain’t so Joe”)
- BOOKS and MAGAZINES (New weekly and monthly publications)
CELEBRITIES, ATHLETES, AND HEROES: Instantly famous
            - Many copied their styles/habits
            - Babe Ruth, Jim Thorpe, Charles Lindbergh, Amelia Earhart
RELIGION: Some found the SOCIAL CHANGES of the 20s more TROUBLING than exciting
            - Religion: VITAL part of Amer. CULTURE
- REVIVALISM (Religious leaders using “Hollywood” style entertainment to spread their message)
- FUNDAMENTALISM (“Modernism” weakened Christianity and contributed to our moral decline)
            - Billy Sunday; Evangelicals; “Old-time religion”
- SCOPES “MONEKY” TRIAL (Fund. on trial); Teaching of EVOLUTION in public school (vs. CREATIONISM)
- TRADITIONAL religious values vs. new values based on SCIENTIFIC ways of thought; Deep divide in the US
- Fund. “won” with Scopes GUILTY, but people’s opinions sank
SECTION 3: (A Creative Era)
MUSIC: (JAZZ AGE) Innovation
- Emergence of JAZZ (New Orleans; Big Jazz fused w/ RAGTIME); Southern at 1st, then moved N with African Americans moving
            - BLUES (BESSIE SMITH – popularized)
- LOUIS ARMSTRONG (fused JAZZ w/ BLUES); BIX BEIDERBECKE, DUKE ELLINGTON, CAB CALLOWAY (Mostly to white audiences)
HARLEM RENAISSANCE:
            - THEATER (Critical acclaim and increasing popularity)
                        - PAUL ROBESON, ROSE MCCLENDON
            - LITERATURE (Central to the HR)
- Works marked by bitterness, defiance, joy, hope, celebrating ethnic identities, and their struggles
- LANGSTON HUGHES (Poems for African American readers)
LOST GENERATION: (Writers/Authors)
- Reflected their horror(s) of WW1, scorned middle-class CONSUMERISM and SUPERFICIALITY, and DISILLUSIONMENT w/ society
- ERNEST HEMINGWAY (A Farewell to Arms); F. SCOTT FITZGERALD (The Great Gatsby)
VISUAL ARTS: Addressed the impact of growing cities and increasing use of machinery
- PAINTING AND PHOTOGRAPHY
- Painting depicted URBAN, INDUSTRIAL settings (GEORGIA O’KEEFE)
- Photography became widely appreciated (ALFRED STIEGLITZ)
- MURALS
- MEXICAN muralists emphasized the nobility of ordinary – peasants and workers – and the TYRANNY of the WEALTHY
- DIEGO RIVERA, FRIDA KAHLO (his wife)
- ARCHITECTURE
- FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT (rectangular shapes and clean, horizontal lines) and LOUIS SULLIVAN (each part has a function)
- Building’s MATERIALS and FORM should reflect its PURPOSE
- SKYSCRAPERS (NYC); Chrysler and Empire State buildings
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS: CH. 14
1. (Sect. 1) How did the development of the assembly line encourage the growth of the US automobile industry and affect American life? By making cars more affordable to consumers and thus encouraging the growth of the automobile industry
2. (Sect. 2) In what ways did the activities of many younger Americans during the 1920s represent a rejection of traditional American values? By dressing and behaving more independently and less strictly than they had in the past, young people rejected traditional American values
3. (Sect. 3) How did the work of writers and artists of the Harlem Renaissance affect American society? By struggling with issues of ethnic identity and racial prejudice and serving as examples of black artistic achievement
4. (Sect. 3) What aspects of American life did writers of the Lost Generation criticize? The superficiality of middle and upper-class life during the 1920s
REVIEWING THEMES: CH. 14
1. (Economics) How did advertising, installment buying, and planned obsolescence boost the nation’s economy in the 1920s? Increasing desire for new goods, making them easier to acquire, and designing goods to “go out of style” helped promote consumer demand
2. (Science, Technology, and Society) How did the spread of inventions such as radio and movies affect American’s daily life during the 1920s? The provided millions of Americans with shared cultural experiences
3. (Culture) In what ways did jazz both reflect and influence international culture? By incorporating elements of African American spirituals, blues, European harmonies, ragtime, and West African and Latin American rhythms; Jazz musicians played around the world
OF NOTE: 1920s
1. The 18th Amendment: Outlawed the manufacture and sale of alcohol
2. The 19th Amendment: Gave women the right to vote
3. Scopes Trial: Involved a state law banning the teaching of evolution
4. The Flapper: Young women who wore short skirts, cut their hair, and acted in modern ways
5. Sacco & Vanzetti: Italian immigrants put on trial for murder. This illustrated the debate over immigration
6. Ku Klux Klan: A new version of the anti-black, anti-Semitic, anti-Catholic group arose during the 1920s
7. Fundamentalism: The argument that the Bible should be accepted without question

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