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Friday, January 11, 2013

Ch. 13 Notes


Ch. 13: Demobilization following WW1: A Turbulent Decade (1919-1929)
DEFINE: Demobilization, Mergers, Feminists, Black Nationalism, Red Scare
1. A CULTURAL CIVIL WAR over issues of RACE, IMMIGRATION, and WOMEN’S RIGHTS and efforts of AFRICAN AMERICANS and others to respond to the KKK and similar groups
2. The rapid growth of a CONSUMER CULTURE and of MASS ENTERTAINMENT (CH. 14)
3. The roots of the GREAT DEPRESSION started here… (CH. 15)
So how did these issues occur?
SECTION 1: DEMOBILIZATION
ISSUES CAUSED BY DEMOB.:
            - MEN came back and WOMEN lost jobs
            - Skyrocketing COST of LIVING
            - RECESSION occurred­­
            - FARM CRISIS occurred; Prices FELL
            - Which led in to
LABOR ISSUES:
- PROTESTS and STRIKES by workers for HIGHER WAGES, SHORTER WORKDAYS, and BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS
- Shipyard, police, steel, and mineworker strikes
- The PRESIDENT (Wilson; D) and the PUBLIC were MAD
            - The public’s concerns moved to
FEARS OF A WORKER REV. & HOSTILITY TOWARDS RADICALS & FOREIGNERS:
- RED SCARE (1919-1920)
- Anti-communist hysteria
- Fears of COMMUNISTS and MARXISTS (b/c of the RUSSIAN REV.)
- PALMER RAIDS; Blaming of IMMIGRANTS (Bombings)
- **Only a FEW RADICALS (ANARCHISTS), but MASS HYSTERIA
- SACCO and VANZETTI; put to death b/c they were ANAR./RAD.
- Immigrants mostly blamed with little to no evidence
- Fears about civil liberties b/c S & V might have been guilty, but ANTI RADICAL VIEWS tainted the trial
SECTION 2: WARREN HARDING (#29; R) AND THE ELECTION OF 1920:   
- H Wins by the LARGEST MAJORITY of pop. votes than any previous pres
- Win due to FARMERS and MIDDLE-CLASS voters
PRO-BUSINESS ECONOMICS AND ITS EFFECTS:
- “Less gov in business and more business in gov” (H)
- Reduce NATIONAL DEBT and promote ECONOMIC GROWTH
- Slashed SPENDING and TARIFFS became all-time high
            - Cut TAXES on the wealthiest Americans
- UNEMPLOYMENT decreased and tremendous economic growth occurred
- INDUSTRIES boomed and many MERGERS occurred… however
- WORKERS, FARMERS, and UNIONS struggled ($ & anti-union sentiments)
FEMINISTS AND WOMEN’S RIGHTS:
- Now with the 19th AMENDMENT, FEMINISTS fought for better working conditions
- However, the unity that helped the 19th AMEND. pass, started to dissolve (ERA)
SCANDAL AND A PRESIDENTIAL DEATH:
- FORBES SCANDAL (H’s close friend stole millions $)
- On tour of W, H has heart attack and dies
- Other scandals come to light after his death: corrupt Attorney Gen. and the TEAPOT DOME SCANDAL (most notorious; BRIBES over OIL land)
CALVIN COOLIDGE (#30; R) TAKES OVER: “The business of America is business
- VP steps in; Fires those involved in scandals; Resumes H’s PRO-BUSINESS policies; Even more “pro-business”
- Finishes the term and EASILY wins in 1924
- REPEALED/CUT: Gift tax, Estate tax, taxes on the wealthy, bonuses for WW1 veterans, and laws to aid farmers and workers; Kept SPENDING low
- Assured of reelection, then WALKED AWAY
HERBERT HOOVER (#31; R) AND THE ELECTION OF 1928:
- Hoover (strong admin. skills and efficiency) VS. (D) A. Smith (fears of ties to Tammany Hall and his Catholic faith)
- H WINS with 58% of the pop. vote
SECTION 3: RACIAL ISSUES IN THE US
AFRICAN AMERICANS MOVING N AND MID-WEST:
- B/C: ECONOMIC OPPS. and longing for a life FREE OF DISCRIM.
            - RACIAL TENSIONS turned to VIOLENCE
- The RETURN (Rising tensions and fears during the Red Scare) and FALL (Decrease in RS tensions, Publicity of their terrorism, Corruptions and scandals at the top) of the KKK
AFRICAN AMERICANS DEFEND THEIR RIGHTS:
- ANTILYNCHING and ANTIVIOLENCE campaign (NAACP)
- African American UNIONIZATION (A. Philip Randolph)
- BLACK NATIONALISM (Marcus Garvey) (Back to Africa Movement)
IMMIGRATION ISSUES:
- NATIVIST sentiment persisted b/c of RACISM and DISCRIMINATION
- Gov’t responded by LIMITING IMMIGRATION into the US… however…
- This RESTRICTIVE LEGISLATION did not affect MEXICANS
- Many SW US employers wanted them to fill LOW-WAGE JOBS
- Mexican immigrants than started to move to URBAN locales
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS: CH. 13 (Make them answer before showing)
1. (Sect. 1) What impact did demobilization after WW1 have on women, factory workers and farmers? Unemployment (women and factory workers); Falling agricultural prices and the loss of farms(farmers)
2. (Sect. 1) What were some of the causes of the strikes of 1919? Most strikes were undertaken by workers demanding higher wages and shorter workdays
3. (Sect. 2) How was Warren G. Harding able to win the election of 1920 by such a large majority? Harding offered a focus on domestic concerns and a promise of “normalcy”
4. (Sect. 3) What types of discrimination did African Americans experience in northern cities? African Americans were the 1st workers fired when production decreased and they encountered violence and threats from some whites
5. (Sect. 3) Why did the immigration of Mexicans to the US increase during the 1920s? Mexican immigration was not restricted and SW employers needed many workers
REVIEWING THEMES: CH. 13
1. (Citizenship) How did the hysteria of the RED SCARE affect the lives of many Americans? The Red Scare made many people afraid to voice their opinions and led officials to ignore personal and legal rights when searching for and arresting suspected radicals
2. (Economics) How did the Republicans’ pro-business policies affect economic growth? Trickle-down policies enabled wealthy business owners to save $ and expand their businesses; Laborers benefited less from these expansions b/c wages did not keep pace with owner’s profits
3. (Culture) In what ways did immigration to the US change in the 1920s? Immigration increased during the decade, leading to calls for restriction

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