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Monday, January 28, 2013

Ch. 16 Notes


CH. 16: THE NEW DEAL (1933-1939)
DEFINE: Bank Holiday, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), New Deal, Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Sit-down Strike, Works Progress Admin. (WPA), Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), Dust Bowl, Regionalists
1. The NEW DEAL was Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt's (FDR) response to the GREAT DEPRESSION, which involved: (Stimulus Programs)
a. JOBS PROGRAMS to put the jobless to work
b. REFORM EFFORTS: To regulate the STOCK MARKET, end CHILD LABOR, and guarantee the right of workers to UNIONIZE
c. ECONOMIC SECURITY PROGRAMS: Insured BANK DEPOSITS and SOCIAL SECURITY, providing old age pensions.
d. OTHER REFROMS included gov. backed HOME LOANS
OF NOTE:
1. To raise FARM INCOMES, the New Deal paid farmers to take LAND OUT OF PRODUCTION under the Agricultural Adjustment Act
2. SOCIAL SECURITY, a New Deal Program, provided INCOME to the ELEDERLY
3. The Fair Labor Standards Act guaranteed American workers the right to UNIONIZE and banned CHILD LABOR
4. CRITICS of the New Deal were in constant fear that gov was becoming too big and overstepping its bounds
5. FDR and the Supreme Court did not get along
SECTION 1: Restoring Hope
FDR VS. THE EMERGENCY:
                  - FDR and his “NEW DEAL”; Dealt w/ banking 1st
                                    - BANKING: BANK HOLIDAY (Banks reopened)
                                                      - FDIC (Confidence increased w/ deposits insured)
                                                      - Loans to homeowners and farmers
HELPING THE NEEDY: (Help for the UNEMPLOYED and FAMILIES)
                  - DIRECT FEDERAL AID (GRANTS not loans)
                                    - People DISLIKED b/c they wanted “jobs, not handouts”
                                    - CCC and CWA created to give people work
HELPING THE NATION: (REFORM and RECOVERY programs)
                  - FDR based ND on the theories of JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES
                                    - Gov must spend $ to encourage INVESTMENT and CONSUMPTION
                  - REFORMING Business: SEC
                  - STIMULATING Business and REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT: NIRA (PWA/NRA)
                                    - Struck down by the SC
AGRICULTURAL RECOVERY:
                  - FDR called for FARMERS to CUT PRODUCTION
                  - AAA (Pays farmers SUBSIDIES)
                                    - Prices and income raised… however…
                                    - Critics of the New Deal complained and the SC struck down the AAA
                                    - … Previewing an upcoming battle between FDR and the SC
REVITALIZATION:
- TN River valley scarred by deforestation, flooding, disease, illiteracy, malnutrition, and poverty
- TVA created to remake the economic and social life of the region
- Largest of the early ND programs
- Critics thought gov was abusing its power (SC does nothing this time)

TVA GOALS FOR THE TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY:
                  - Combat ILLITERACY, MALARIA, and SOIL EROSION
                  - Provide ELECTRICITY, FLOOD CONTROL, and RECREATIONAL FACILITIES
                  - Improve STANDARD OF LIVING
EQUALITY:
                  - DISCRIMINATION was still an issue (FDR does not do much)
                  - AFRICAN AMERICANS do make some gains
                                    - Many hired by ND programs
                                    - FDR hires many to gov jobs
                                    - FDR’s wife Eleanor: Championed civil rights and helping people
                  - INDIANS struggling
                                    - Bad housing, healthcare, and malnutrition
                                    - John Collier
                                    - Congress passed laws to help
SECTION 2: New Challenges
CRITICISMS: (Both CONSERVATIVES (RIGHT) and LIBERALS (LEFT)
                  - Help for the elderly, hurting businesses, wealthy not taxed enough
2ND NEW DEAL: 1934 election brought in more Dems and expectations
                  - Emphasized LONG-TERM reform
                  - Jobs (PUBLIC-WORKS programs): WPA, NYA
                  - The ELDERLY: SOCIAL SECURITY (pensions)
                  - Program/laws to keep UTILITY COSTS LOW (i.e. electricity)
                  - Raised TAXES on the WEALTHY
                  - FDR easily won reelection in 1936
FDR VS. THE SUPREME COURT: Wanted to “REFORM” the court
                  - FDR asked Congress for the power to add more justices to the SC
                                    - DID NOT like that they went against the ND
                  - Dems and Repubs were both mad at FDRs “COURT-PACKING” plan
                  - Congress did not pass plan AND SC sided with the gov ND laws
                  - Problem averted; ND constitutional; Several died or retired anyways
EFFECTS OF THE 2ND NEW DEAL:
                  - LABOR: (AFL and CIO and UAW) going after UNION rights
- FARMERS: “Soil conservation” (crop reduction), subsidies, surplus storage, loans, and aid for migrants, sharecroppers, and tenant farmers
SECTION 3: Life in the New Deal Era
NEW DEAL PROGRAMS:
                  - Brought ELECTRICITY to RURAL areas
                  - Broke down CLASS BARRIERS
                  - Helped MODERNIZE the SOUTH
                  - Boosted FAMILY INCOMES so that children could stay in school
                  - Provided JOBS, improved people’s sense of SELF-WORTH
THE DUST BOWL AND MIGRATION:
- Mass MIGRATION to CA spurred on by giant DUST STORMS and DROUGHT in the GREAT PLAINS
- Soil erosion programs instituted and many trees planted… worked well
                  - Too late for many though, who packed and moved (mostly) W
- Mex. Migrants facing discrimination and a lack of work
                  - Increased competition from FILIPINOS; Both groups faced problems
LIFE IN PICS/MOVIES:
- Grim experiences in rural areas became great subjects for photographers and filmmakers
                  - Unemployed men
                  - Hungry children
                  - Exhausted women
                  - Gov hired FILMMAKERS; Helped promote FDR’s programs
EVALUATING THE NEW DEAL:
                  - Improved many’s self-worth by getting people back to work… However…
                  - Critics charged the ND created a WELFARE STATE,
                                    - A system of gov institutions that provide for the basic needs of citizens
                  - DEFICIT SPENDING,
                                    - Having the gov spend more $ than it receives in revenue
                  - Too much gov in business… However…
- **Not 100% effective, but had many successes and many programs are still around today (FDIC, Social Security, SEC, people having electricity)
SECTION 4: The New Deal and the Arts
WPA PROGRAMS:
                  - Designed to help the ARTS (in ND programs, schools, and public buildings)
                                    - Writing, theater, music, and visual arts
PORTRAYING THE DEPRESSION:
       - NOVELS
                  - Themes of the depression, experiences of minorities, economic chaos
                                    - John Steinbeck, “The Grapes of Wrath”
                                    - Zora Neal Hurston, “Their Eyes Were Watching God”
                                    - Margaret Mitchell, “Gone With the Wind”
       - FILMS
                  - “ESCAPIST” themes, social issues
                                    - “Gone With the Wind” and “The Wizard of Oz”
                                    - Marx Bros. and Ginger Rogers
                                    - Frank Capra (“Mr. Deeds Goes to Town” and “Mr. Smith Goes to Wash.”)
MUSIC:
                  - Incorporated Amer. traditions and sounds
                  - Aaron Copland (Composer)
                  - GOSPEL - Thomas Dorsey and Mahalia Jackson
                  - JAZZ - Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman
PAINTERS:
                  - Jacob Lawrence (Harlem Renaissance)
                  - Georgia O’Keeffe (Paintings of the SW)
                  - Regionalists
                  - Grant Wood (“American Gothic”)
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS:
1. (Sect. 1) How did the Great Depression change the role of the US gov? The gov became more involved in people’s daily lives and with economic policy
2. (Sect. 2) What were some of the major criticisms of the New Deal? Being against big business, not doing enough to control business, and not providing enough relief
3. (Sect. 2) What was Pres. Roosevelt’s “court-packing” plan, and how well did it succeed (and why)? Get rid of the older justices who consistently opposed the New Deal; Most people opposed FDRs efforts
4. (Sect. 3) How effective were New Deal measures in ending the Great Depression? The relieved the suffering of many Americans, but the economy did not fully recover until the US prepared for WW2
5. (Sect. 4) How did novels, plays, and paintings reflect themes of the depression years? Many chronicled the lives of people struggling to survive, and others criticized wealthy business owners or explored major issues
REVIEWING THEMES:
1. (Economics) How did the Roosevelt admin. expand the role of the federal gov in regulating the economy? By providing jobs and wages, allowing businesses to temporarily ignore antitrust laws, initiating public works projects, and providing subsidies to farmers
2. (Constitutional Heritage) Why might the Supreme Court have declared some New Deal measures unconstitutional? Because they interfered with free enterprise and imposed larger taxes on the wealthy
3. (Geography) What effects did migration from the Dust Bowl have on the West Coast? The population of the West Coast increased dramatically

Saturday, January 26, 2013

Schedule for the Week of Jan 28-Feb 1, 2013

MONDAY: Review for Ch. 15 Quiz; Start Ch. 16
TUESDAY: Ch. 15 Packets/Vocab Due; Ch. 15 Quiz; Ch. 16
WEDNESDAY: Ch. 16 Notes and Vocab (Book Needed)
THURSDAY: Ch. 16 Notes (Book Needed if Vocab not completed)
FRIDAY: Ch. 16 Notes (Book Needed if Vocab not completed)
**Next Tuesday: Ch. 16 TEST**

Ch. 15 Notes



DEFINE: Bull Market, Bear Market, Margin Buying, Gross National Product, Business Cycle, Great Depression, Black Thursday, Black Tuesday, Mutualistas, Breadlines, Shantytowns, Rugged Individualism
1. Great Depression: A severe worldwide ECONOMIC DEPRESSION
2. It began with the STOCK MARKET CRASH of 1929
3. UNEMPLOYMENT soared and international TRADE plunged
4. Depression era UNEMPLOYMENT levels did not end until the beginning of WW2
1930s: A decade of economic depression that led gov to take a more active role in US life:
1. The Stock Market Crash
2. Why did the prosperity of the 1920s ended so suddenly? Poor distribution of wealth, cutting off of immigration
3. Why the Depression lasted as long as it did? Government needed to act more aggressively
4. The Depression's HUMAN TOLL: Loss of jobs
5. POLICIES were adopted to combat the crisis
1. 25%: During the early stages of the Depression 25% of the workforce was JOBLESS
2. INADEQUATE PURCHASING POWER: A MAJOR cause of the Great Depression
3. DUST BOWL: EROSION and WIND STORMS that devastated AGRICULTURE in the MIDWEST during the 1930s
4. EFFECT ON FAMILIES: The Great Depression caused couples to put off MARRIAGE and have FEWER CHILDREN
5. The LONGEST, most WIDESPREAD, and DEEPEST depression of the 20th century
SECTION 1: PROSPERITY SHATTERED
FACTORS THAT CAUSED THE STOCK MARKET CRASH:
                  - Economic factors such as rising interest rates worry investors
                  - Investors sell stock
                  - Stock prices plunge
                  - Heavy sales continue… then the crash
ECONOMIC TROUBLES: Early warnings (agriculture, industry) but few seemed to care
                  - Interest rates were kept LOW to encourage consumers to use credit (Pg. 442)
                                    - However, too many became increasingly reliant on credit
                  - STOCK MARKET
                                    - More and more purchased; No “Bear Market” fears
                                    - STOCK SPECULATION: Rapid buying inflated prices too much (Pg. 443)
                                    - MARGIN BUYING: Buying stocks on CREDIT (Pg. 443)
STOCK MARKET CRASHES:
                  - BLACK THURSDAY: Oct. 24, 1929 (Pg.  443)
                                    - Nervous investors dumped lots of shares; PRICES (Plunged/Rose)
                  - BLACK TUESDAY: Oct. 29, 1929 (Pg. 444)
                                    - Prices sank to a NEW LOW (16 mill. shares sold)
                                                      - More and more owed $ for stocks bought “ON MARGIN” (Pg. 444)
                                                      - Most sold at huge losses ($30 bill. lost)
                                                      - Only a (big/small) % of people invested, but HUGE CONSEQUENCES
THE DEPRESSION BEGINS:
                  - BANKING CRISIS
                                    - Large BANKS suffered significant losses from crash (Pg. 444)
                                    - Borrowers then began TO DEFAULT (Investors could not repay loans)
                                    - Banks began to FAIL (CLOSE) w/ dwindling $ reserves; Widespread fear
- Many tried to WITHDRAW their $, causing more panic, when not all banks had $ for customers to withdraw
                  - BUSINESS FAILURES
- Companies suffered from the crash AND CONSUMERS were unable or unwilling to buy products; People scared to use credit (Pg. 445)
- Cut production and fired workers
- GNP cut in half
- UNEMPLOYMENT rose from 3.2% to 23.6% (BAD!!!) (Pg. 445)
CAUSES:
                  - GLOBAL DEPRESSION (ECON trouble throughout the world)
                                    - Poor global FINANCES after WW1; Massive war debts (Pg. 445)
                                    - Foreigners were unable to PURCHASE American goods.
                                    - US did not help by placing HIGH TARIFFS on IMPORTED goods
                                                      - SMOOT-HAWLEY TARIFF: Highest ever (Pg. 446)
                                                      - Eliminated US market for foreign goods (accelerated problems)
                  - INCOME GAP and CONSUMER DEBT
                                    - Rich got richer, poor got poorer
                                    - Most people did not have the PURCHASING POWER to boost the ECONOMY
                                    - Gov raised INTEREST RATES (on credit) and people could not PAY debts
SECTION 2: HARD TIMES
UNEMPLOYMENT:
                  - INCREASING JOBLESSNESS
                                    - 1.5 (1929) to 15 million UNEMPLOYED (1933)
                                    - WAGES and HOURS fell dramatically for employed (Pg. 448)
                                    - IMMIGRATION decreased
                  - WORKERS
                                    - Many lost jobs, but especially AFRICAN AMERICANS (men and women)
                                    - WOMEN workers (increased/decreased); cheaper
                                    - Many “self-employed” for extra $
CITY LIFE: (BAD!!!)
                  - Many faced UNEMPLOYMENT and POVERTY (Pg. 449)
                  - Gov did little to help; Red Cross, Salvation Army, and churches stepped in
                  - Mex. Amer. Formed MUTUALISTAS
                  - Many waited on BREADLINES
                  - THE HOMELESS flocked to SHANTYTOWNS (aka HOOVERVILLES)
LIFE ON THE FARM: (BAD!!!)
                  - SHRINKING DEMAND caused PRICES to (rise/drop); Surpluses mounted (Pg. 451)
                  - People went hungry in the cities and farmers had to let crops (rot/prosper)
                  - Farm FORECLOSURES b/c farmers could make their MORTGAGE payments
                  - COTTON/FOOD prices fell
                  - MIGRANT WORKERS lost jobs (not much better for those who had work)
FAMILY LIFE: (BAD!!!)
                  - Farmers and families shared (homes, food, etc)
- People moved back home w/ parents
                  - MARRIAGE RATE DECLINED and BIRTHRATES (declined/rose) (Pg. 452-453)
                  - Women’s roles stretched
- Mood of the country became depressed
POPULAR CULTURE: People looked to pop culture and entertainment for an escape
                  - MOVIES: (Cheap/Expensive) and fun; “Talkies” (Pg. 454)
                                    - Gangster films, strong women roles, Disney cartoons
                  - RADIO: (Paid/Free) entertainment @home (Pg. 455)
                                    - # of radios owned more than 2X
                                    - Lone Ranger, Little Orphan Annie
                  - LITERATURE
                                    - COMICS (Expensive/Inexpensive); Tarzan, Flash Gordon (Pg. 455)
- NOVELS: Some were an ESCAPE and others portrayed the BAD TIMES
SECTION 3: HOOVER’S POLICIES

HOOVER and the GREAT DEPRESSION

EFFORT
DESCRIPTION
EFFECTIVENESS
PUBLIC-WORKS PROGRAMS
Poured $ into public construction projects such as the Boulder Dam
Failed to affect the entrenched depression
AGRICULTURAL EFFORTS
Created the Federal Farm Board; Made loans; Estab. Co-ops; Bought surplus goods
Helped some farmers take advantage of co-ops and avoid foreclosure, but failed to end the farm crisis
RECONSTRUCTION FINANCE CORPORATION
Loaned taxpayer $ to stabilize industries
Helped some companies avoid bankruptcy; Used $ for businesses, not people
RUGGED INDIVIDUALISM: H believed that they way too economic recovery was through INDIVIDUAL EFFORT and not from GOV ASSISTANCE (shaping the economy and boosting confidence through a HANDS-OFF approach)
                  - Opposed DIRECT AID (RELIEF), with VOLUNTEERING preferable to gov aid
- Hoover did provide aid for public works programs, farmers, banks, railroads, and insurance companies and inadvertently, the government became more (active/hands-off) than ever before
                                    - In the end, Hoover could not fix the problems was blamed
                  - PROTESTS (Radicals and WW1 vets) against the gov
1932 ELECTION: Hoover (R) vs. Franklin D. Roosevelt (D)
                  - Hoover did not have much public and intra-party support
                  - FDR seemed optimistic against Hoover’s gloom
                  - FDR wins (#32) and Dems capture both houses; FDR promises a “NEW DEAL”
- (R) took the blame for bad economy in the 1930s after being praised in the 20s
UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEAS: CH. 15
1. (Sect. 1) How did the business practices of the 1920s contribute to the stock market crash of 1929? Created a heavy surplus and encouraged consumers to use CREDIT
2. (Sect. 1) How did the crash, the banking crisis, and the global depression all contribute to the Great Depression? The crash hurt individuals and banks; The banking crisis hurt individuals, banks, and business; The global depression hurt the US
3. (Sect. 2) How did urban and rural residents organize to survive? URBAN: charitable organizations and mutual aid societies; RURAL: neighbors protected each other against foreclosure
4. (Sect. 2) How did popular culture provide an escape from the psychological burdens of the depression? Popular culture provided an ESCAPE from the physical strain(s) caused by the Great Depression.
5. (Sect. 3) Why did Pres. Hoover oppose direct federal aid for the unemployed? Pres. Hoover believed that people had the responsibility to help (themselves/others) rather than rely on the government for assistance
REVIEWING THEMES: CH. 15
1. (Economics) What were the multiple factors that contributed to the Great Depression? Factors that contributed to the Great Depression included: 1. The (global/local) economic crisis and the national income gap deprived American businesses of customers and 2. Consumer (debt/income) lessened disposable income and increased financial instability
2. (Geography) How did the hardships of the depression differ for rural and urban residents? Hardships for (Rural/Urban) residents: unable to sell their crops and faced homelessness; Hardships for (Rural/Urban) residents: experienced homelessness and hunger
3. (Culture) How did racial prejudices magnify the effects of the depression for African and Mexican Americans? Discrimination and racial prejudices in the workplace meant that African and Mexican Americans experienced (higher/lower) wages and (higher/lower) levels of unemployment