Progressivism: Reform movement of the early 1900s concerned with curing problems of urbanization and industrialization.
McClure's Magazine: Progressive mag. that explored corruption in politics and business and created muckraking journalism.
Muckrakers: Investigative journalists who wrote about corruption in business and politics, hoping to bring about reform.
Lincoln Steffens: Reporter, wrote The Shame of the Cities; was famous for investigating corruption in municipal gov and his muckraking style of journalism.
Ida Tarbell: Muckraking journalist who exposed abuses by the Standard Oil company.
Ray Stannard Baker: Writer who toured the US examining the plight of African Americans (i.e. lynching).
Theodore Dreiser: In his novels such as Sister, Carrie (1900) and The Financier (1912), he depicted workers brutalized by greedy business owners.
Key Notes: Progressives were in favor of banning alcohol, wanted an end to child labor, women’s suffrage, and people having greater control of gov ; By 1920 more than ½ of ALL Americans lived in cities; By 1902, only about 3% of African Americans were in unions; Most labor unions supported capitalism, not socialism; The Supreme Court generally DID NOT support social reform
Freedom of Contract: Freedom of workers to negotiate the terms of their employment.
Closed Shop: Workplace in which all the employees must belong to a union.
Open Shop: Non-union workplace.
Socialism: Economic system in which the gov or the workers own most of the factories, utilities, and transportation and communication systems.
Florence Kelley: Helped helped organize the National Child Labor Committee (1904).
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire: (1911) Incident that resulted in the deaths of some 140 garment workers; Led to increased safety regulations for businesses.
Mueller v. Oregon: Supreme Court case that upheld protective legislation for female workers in Oregon.
Louis Brandies: Brilliant lawyer who argued, and won the Muller v. Oregon Supreme Court case.
Samuel Gompers: Founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL), which had only SKILLED workers, was the “major” labor org, and the AFL grew 4-fold under him (1900-14).
International Ladies' Garment Workers Union (ILGWU): (ILGWU) Received strike support from the WTUL and was made up of mainly Jewish and Italian immigrant women.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW): (IWW) Union formed in 1905 that opposed capitalism.
William "Big Bill" Haywood and the IWW: Founding member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), who had many members from minority races and were against capitalism.
Prohibition: Complete ban on the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcohol.
Lawrence Vieller: Settlement-house worker, who attacked irresponsible tenement owners “who for the sake of a large profit on their investments sacrificed the health and welfare of countless thousands.”
Daniel Burnham: (1909) Leading city planner, produced the 1st comprehensive plan to redesign a US city (Chicago).
Women's Christian Temperance Movement (WCTU): (WCTU) Reform organization that led the fight against alcohol in the late 1800s.
Frances Willard: Headed the WCTU and made it a powerful national force for temperance, moral purity, and the rights of women.
Billy Sunday: Athlete who, after being a popular OF in MLB's NL during the 1880s, became the most celebrated and influential US evangelist during the 1st two decades of the 20th century.
18th Amendment: (1919) Barred the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages in the US; Difficult to enforce; Repealed in 1933.
W.E.B. Dubois: In The Souls of Black Folk, he expressed his dual identity as both African and American.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): Group founded by W.E.B. Du Bois and others in 1909 to end racial discrimination.
National Urban League: Group founded in 1911 to fight for racial equality.
Society of American Indians: Org. formed in 1911 by middle-class American Indians to address Indian problems.