Boxers: Pg. # 330; The Fists of Righteous Harmony was another name for the secret Chinese society called the Boxers.
The Boxer Rebellion: Pg. # 330; The Boxer Rebellion was the result of Chinese resentment towards the presence of foreigners in China.
The Russo-Japanese War: Pg. # 332; In Feb. 1904, Japanese troops attacked Russian forces in Manchuria, starting the war.
T. Roosevelt, Russia, and Japan: Pg. # 332; Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his role his role in negotiating peace between Japan and Russia.
Hawaiian League: Pg. # 328; Some 400 American businesspeople, planters, and traders formed the league when King Kalakaua denied their demand for renewing tax-free status on sugar. Their goal was to overthrow the monarchy and persuade the US to annex Hawaii.
Hawaiians and Disease: Pg. # 328; Thousands of native Hawaiians died from diseases brought by missionaries, settlers, and traders who arrived by ship.
The Bayonet Constitution and Kalakaua: Pg. # 328; In July 1887 the Hawaiian League forced Hawaiian King Kalakaua at gunpoint (a bayonet) to sign a new constitution that limited his role to that of a figurehead and limited native Hawaiians right to hold office in their own country.
Queen Liliuokalani: Pg. # 328-329; Queen Lili believe that being annexed by the US (wasn’t in) the best interests of the Hawaiian people.
Hawaiians and Annexation: Pg. # 329; Most of the people of Hawaii (did not) want the US to annex their islands.
Spheres of Influence: Pg. # 330; (define) Regions where a particular country has exclusive rights over mines, railroads, and trade.
Subsidy: Pg. # 328; (define) Government payment made to farmers.
UMI #1: What led industrialized nations to seek overseas colonies in the late 1800s and early 1900s? The desire for markets, raw materials, power, and prestige, as well as the desire to spread democracy and Christianity.
RTD #1: Define IMPERIALISM and give an example. Imperialism is the quest for colonial empires and an example is the US acquiring Hawaii.
SECTION 2: War with Spain
Rough Riders: Pg. # 336; Cavalry unit of American Indians, college athletes, cowboys, and ranchers that was led by Theodore Roosevelt.
Pres. William McKinley: Opposed to any US action in support of the Cuban rebels and was opposed to the Spanish-American War at the onset because he felt that the US had been in too many wars in its recent past.
William Randolph Hearst: Pg. # 334; A journalist (and newspaper owner) who believed that newspapers, as the voice of the people, could control the nation. **FUN FACT: The movie that is widely considered to be the greatest film ever produced, Citizen Kane, is a slightly fictionalized account of Hearst’s life.
Valeriano Weyler: Pg. # 334; Spanish general called “The Butcher” by the US press because of his cruel treatment of Cubans.
Jose Marti: Pg. # 333; A Cuban (exile) living in NYC who took up the cause of Cuban independence.
George Dewey: Pg. # 335; Before war was declared in the Philippines, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt had cabled secret orders to Commodore Dewey. In the event of war between the US and Spain, Dewey was to attack Philippines.
Emilio Aguinaldo: Pg. # 336; A famous Filipino rebel who would help the US fend of Spanish forces in the Philippines.
Organic Act: Pg. # 339; Philippine Government Act, which established a governor and a two-house legislature.
Cuban Independence: Pg. # 334; To many Americans, the Cuban’s struggle for independence reminded them of the American fight for independence against the British.
The Philippine Islands and the end of the Spanish-American War: Pg. # 336; The islands, acquired by the US for $ 20 million, were ceded by Spain, along with Cuba and Puerto Rico.
UMI #2: What were the major causes of the Spanish-American War? The major causes of the Spanish-American War were imperialist ambition, yellow journalism, humanitarian concerns, and the Maine incident.
UMI #3: What economic effects did the war have on the US? The economic effects of the Spanish-American War on the US caused it to become more of a world power, increased its trade, and gained more territory.
RTD #2: How did Spain respond to the revolt in Cuba? Spain responded to the revolt in Cuba by sending in General Weyler who forced thousands of farmers in to concentration camps to prevent them from aiding the rebels.
RTD #3: What happened to the Philippines after the Spanish-American War? The Philippines were annexed by the US in 1899, though was granted full independence in 1946.
SECTION 3: Expansion in Latin America
Protectorate: (define) Pg. # 340; Country dependent on another for protection. Cuba became a protectorate of the US if they agreed to put the Platt Amendment in to their constitution.
Dollar Diplomacy: (define) Pg. # 344; Pres. Taft’s policy of influencing Latin American affairs through economic influence rather than military force.
John Hay and the Panama Canal: Pg. # 341; Although the French had tried to build a canal in Panama, the US started its efforts when Secretary of State Hay began negotiations with Colombia.
Yellow Fever: Pg. # 342; Serious disease carried by mosquitoes that threatened workers on the Panama Canal project.
Panama: Pg. # 342; Army colonel Dr. William C. Gorgas worked on improving living conditions by applying his experiences with tropical diseases in Cuba.
Panama Canal: Pg. # 341; The canal was known as the path between the seas.
Philippe Bunau-Varilla: Pg. # 341; The engineer for the French canal-building project who helped the Panamanian rebels get support from the US.
The Roosevelt Corollary: Pg. # 343; The West African proverb that began “speak softly and carry a big stick” was a favorite saying of his.
Puerto Rico: Pg. # 340-341; The Foraker Act and the Jones Act were 2 steps the US took in the process of making Puerto Rico a self-governing commonwealth.
UMI #4: What steps did the US overcome to build the Panama Canal? The steps that the US overcame to build the Panama Canal included tying to negotiate a treaty with Colombia, supporting Panamanian rebels, negotiating the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (to gain control over Canal Zone), and starting to build the canal.
RTD #4: How did the US govern Cuba and Puerto Rico? The US governed Cuba and Puerto Rico by President McKinley setting up military governments. In Cuba, a US protectorate, the US could intervene when it felt necessary. In Puerto Rico, the US ruled the island as a territory and it eventually became a self-governing commonwealth of the US.
RTD #5: What was U.S. policy toward Latin America during the late 1800s and early 1900s? The US has a long history of involvement in Latin America. Since the early 1800s it has sought to limit the influence of foreign nations there.
SECTION 4: Conflict with Mexico
Pancho Villa: Pg. # 347; 1 of the leaders of the Mexican revolutionary armies that continued to fight Huerta.
Porfirio Diaz: Pg. # 345; Diaz’s gov (Mexico) was responsible for improvements in the railroad, petroleum, and mining industries.
Emiliano Zapata: Pg. # 345; Led a rebel army that fought for land for the American Indian peasant population.
Francisco Madero, Diaz, and Huerta: Pg. # 346; A wealthy landowner from N Mexico, Madero was an unlikely candidate to fight against Diaz. Madero’s ideas sparked the Mexican Revolution that toppled Diaz’s dictatorship. Madero would later be betrayed by his commanding general Victoriano Huerta.
Woodrow Wilson and Huerta: Pg. # 347; Outraged by Francisco Madero’s murder, Wilson, the new US pres, refused to recognize Huerta, thought Huerta gained recognition from most European countries.
Carranza’s Constitution: Pg. # 349; The constitution placed the interests of common welfare above individual rights and provided protection for workers.
Veracruz: Pg. # 347; Site of the 1st armed fight between the US military and the Mexican soldiers.
ABC Powers: Pg. # 347; Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.
Mexico’s Rebel Leaders: Pg. # 347; Due to differing interests, the rebel leaders in Mexico, Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon, were NOT united.
UMI #5: How and why did the US intervene in Mexico? The US intervened in Mexico because President Wilson wanted Huerta, whom he regarded as a murderer, removed from office and ordered intervention.
RTD #6: What were the causes of U.S. intervention in Mexico? The reign of the murderous Huerta, the taking of crew members of the USS Dolphin, and the Germans trying to bring Huerta arms were causes of the US intervention in Mexico.
RTD #7: What were the outcomes of the Mexican Revolution? The outcomes of the Mexican Revolution were Carranza in power, his new constitution, and Mexico declaring national ownership of the entire mineral, oil, and water rights in the country.
2. The Underwood Tariff Act caused US exports to increase.