SECTION 1: Reforming Government
Direct Primary: Pg. # 298; Political event where voters choose the candidates who will later run in a general election.
Initiative: Pg. # 299; Voters have the power to put a law or policy on the ballot for all other voters to approve.
Referendum: Pg. # 299; Enough signatures on a petition allows citizens to get a recently passed law or policy to the ballot so that voters can approve or veto it.
Recall: Pg. # 299; Voters can remove an elected person from office by calling for another special election.
The Wisconsin Idea: Pg. # 302; Model reform program, created by Robert M. La Follette, which introduced the direct primary and other electoral changes to WI and other states.
Secret Ballot: Pg. # 299; Proved to be very effective in preventing voters from being threatened or forced to vote for one candidate or another by listing ALL candidates on a single, uniform sheet of paper.
City Manager(s): Pg. # 300-301; A person who is hired to manage a city the same way he or she would manage a business.
The average voter was NOT in favor of tax reform and pensions for city employees.
UMI #1: What were the strengths of the city-commission and city-manager forms of gov? The city commission and city manager forms of government allowed experts to manage cities more efficiently and reduce corruption.
UMI #2: How did the Wisconsin Idea lay the foundation for further reforms? The Wisconsin Idea laid the foundation for further reforms by influencing political leaders in other states.
RTD #1: What reforms were enacted to make U.S. voting procedures more democratic? (List)
Direct Primary, 17th Amendment, Secret Ballot, Initiative, Referendum, Recall
SECTION 2: Roosevelt and the Square Deal
Theodore Roosevelt: Pg. # 303; Pres. # 26; Considered to be a progressive pres. An avid OUTDOORSMAN, one of his lasting gifts to the US is many NATIONAL PARKS. Hands-ON pres. Wanted REGULATIONS, but was pro-BUSINESS and the WEALTH it created.
Square Deal: Pg. # 304; Was Pres. Roosevelt’s effort to balance the needs to business, consumers, and labor.
Gifford Pinchot: Pg. # 308; 1st used the word conservation to describe the responsible protection of the natural environment. Eventually would have a conflict with Richard Ballinger, known as the Ballinger-Pinchot Affair, over the sale of public lands that was viewed by progressive Republicans as an attempt to overturn the conservation program established by Pres Roosevelt.
Upton Sinclair and The Jungle: Pg. # 306; Muckraking journalist whose novel about unsanitary conditions at Chicago meatpacking plants forced Pres. Roosevelt to create the Meat Inspection and the Pure Food and Drug Acts (Pg. # 306) because of the public pressure caused by The Jungle and, as well as a government investigation.
New Nationalism: Pg. # 312; Pres. Roosevelt’s program that called for an active federal gov to pass laws protecting people and regulating businesses.
UMI #3: How did the Square Deal reflect Pres. T. Roosevelt's approach to gov? The Square Deal embodied Roosevelt’s belief in balancing the needs of business, labor, and consumers.
RTD #2: What was Pres. Roosevelt's governing style? Hands-on. Roosevelt believed that the president should use the office as a “bully-pulpit” to speak out on vital issues.
RTD #3: Why did the gov attempt to regulate trusts and the food and drug industries? The government attempted to regulate trusts, food, and drug industries to help consumers. “Bad” trusts did such things as force companies to give them discounts or rebates, selling inferior products, competing unfairly, and corrupting public officials. The government regulated the food and drug industries because of growing public concern that drug companies, food processors, and meat packers were selling dangerous products and/or lying to consumers.
SECTION 3: Reform Under Taft
William Howard Taft: Pg. # 310; Pres. # 27; Felt that pres. power was limited by the Constitution. Supported Richard Ballinger. Did NOT oppose high tariffs. Angered progressives who thought he was undoing Roosevelt’s gains. Roosevelt was known as a “trust-buster” but it was Taft who busted more trusts (90ish to 40ish). Did not like the limelight like Roosevelt did.
Mann-Elkins Act: Pg. # 310; Gave power to the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate telephone and telegraph companies.
Joseph Cannon: Pg. # 312; Progressive Republicans believed that Speaker of the House Cannon had too much control over bills.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff: Pg. # 311; High tariff measure, signed by President Taft, which angered many progressives. One of the 1st steps leading to the split between Taft and the Progressive Republicans was his refusal to veto this tariff.
Woodrow Wilson: Pg. # 313; Pres. # 28; Worked hard for changes in child-labor laws (though was unsuccessful in achieving great reform). The split in the Republican Party resulted in Democrats and some Republicans supporting Wilson for pres.
Taft, Roosevelt, 1912: Pg. # 313; Because Taft’s allies would not seat many of Roosevelt’s delegates, Theodore Roosevelt lost the Republican Party’s 1912 pres. nomination.
New Freedom: Pg. # 313; Program that was built on the belief that people did the best with the least amount of interference from government and business.
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair: Pg. # 311; Incident in which President Taft fired Gifford Pinchot as head of the US Forestry Service for criticizing Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger’s approval of the sale of Alaskan Timberland. This resulted in weakened support for Taft.
Progressive (Bull Moose) Party: Pg. # 313; Bull Moose was another name for the newly reformed Progressive Party. Theodore Roosevelt was their candidate for pres in the Election of 1912.
Progressives and African Americans: Pg. # 302; Even though they did much for (rich/poor) white Americans, the southern progressives still tried to prevent African Americans from voting.
UMI #4: What failures AND successes did Pres. Taft experience during his term in office? Taft’s biggest failure that was he engendered (caused) conflicts. Taft’s successes included limiting trusts and passing labor and tax reforms.
RTD #4: What progressive reforms were enacted during President Taft's administration? Suing trusts, Mann-Elkins Act, Department of Labor, mine safety laws, 8-hr workday for government workers, 16th Amendment (graduated income tax), and environmental conservation.
RTD #5: What divisions in the Republican Party led to the formation of the Progressive Party?
Payne-Aldrich tariff (high tariff), Ballinger-Pinchot Affair (the firing of Pinchot over the sale of coal-rich Alaskan land), and the Joseph Cannon-George Norris fight (Taft’s refusal to take a side).
RTD #6: How did Woodrow Wilson win the 1912 presidential election? The division in the Republican Party practically assured a victory for the Democrats (Wilson). The Dems united behind 1 candidate, while the Republicans split between Taft and Progressive (Bull Moose) candidate Theodore Roosevelt.
SECTION 4: Wilson’s “New Freedom”
Women were very involved in the reform movement.
Alice Paul: Pg. # 319; founder of the National Woman’s Party.
National Woman’s Party: Pg. # 319; Proposed an amendment to the Constitution guaranteeing women the right to vote.
Carrie Chapman Catt: Pg. # 319; Her leadership led to the successes at the state level for women’s suffrage.
19th Amendment: Pg. # 321; Constitutional Amendment that granted women the right to vote and became an amendment in 1920 (year).
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act: Pg. # 318; Came under Pres. Wilson; (Definition) (1916) Law that outlawed the interstate sale of products produced by child labor; was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1918.
Federal Trade Commission: Pg. # 317; Created to give the gov the ability to investigate and bring to court corporations that had unfair business practices.
Graduated Income Tax (Tariffs) and Pres. Wilson: Pg. # 315; Pres. Wilson’s administration introduced the graduated income tax, which means your tax rate is based upon how much $ you earn, to make up for revenue that was lost by lowering tariffs.
UMI #5: How did women's suffrage leaders achieve success? Woman’s suffrage leaders achieved success by lobbying state legislatures and then by adopting a national strategy focused on a constitutional amendment. Suffragists also focused on senators who were running for reelection (to help persuade or go after their jobs).
RTD #7: How did President Wilson's proposals affect big business and U.S. citizens? Wilson’s proposals, Clayton Antitrust Act and the FTC, affected big business by looking out for small businesses. To help citizens, Wilson helped pass the Adamson Act (shorter work hours with no cut in pay), the Federal Workmen’s Compensation Act (benefits for federal workers hurt on the job), the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act (can’t sell products made by child labor), and the passage of the 19th Amendment (women’s suffrage).
RTD #8: Why were the 16th, 17th, and the 19th Amendments adopted? Fairer tax on income based on how much a person makes (16th); To prevent a spoils system type situation by giving voters the power to elect their senators (17th); To give women, who had issues with rights, pay, property, work, etc., the right to vote (19th) and become equal citizens under the law.