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Friday, October 26, 2012

Ch. 8 UMIs and Graphic Orgs

For checking your answers - do not plagarize. Just make sure yours are in the ballpark.
Ch. 8: UMIs:
1. What did political machines do to build and maintain support for their party?
A: Political machines offered jobs, political favors, and services to local voters.
2. What caused the decline in public support for the Tweed ring?
A: Decline in public support for Tweed b/c of Thomas Nast’s political cartoons in Harper’s Weekly and a series of articles in the New York Times.
3. What did the Stalwarts want? What reforms did the Half-breeds want?
A: Stalwarts strongly opposed civil service reform (Stalwarts wanted the Spoils system). Half-breeds wanted favored the use of civil service exams to grant jobs on merit rather than by patronage.
4. What role did Pres. Grant’s administration play in the civil service reform movement?
A: Pres. Grant’s administration prompted reformers to call for the end of the spoils system.
5. What issues did the Populist Party support?
A: Issues that the Populists supported included a graduated income tax, bank regulations, gov ownership of railroad and telegraph companies, free coinage of silver, immigration restrictions, a shorter workday, and voter reforms.
6. Why did the populists lose the 1896 election?
A: The Populists lost the 1896 election b/c business leaders were terrified of William Jennings Bryan’s popularity (they were worried he would win the election b/c he was very charasmatic) and contributed millions to his opponent William McKinley.
Why immigrants were important to machines:
·        Represented a huge supply of supporters and voters
·        Tended to be particularly loyal to machines
Ways in which machines Recruited and Rewarded immigrants:
·        Welcomed immigrants upon arrival
·        Found immigrants temporary housing and jobs
·        Helped immigrants become naturalized citizens
·        Helped immigrants with finances, funerals, etc.
Pres. Arthur and Reforms:
·        Supported reform after the assassination of Garfield
·        Helped pass Pendleton Civil Service Act
Effects on the Republicans and the Election of 1884:
·        Stalwarts voted for James Blaine
·        Republicans voted for G. Cleveland, the dem candidate
Pres. Cleveland’s Reforms:
·        Doubled the # of federal jobs requiring civil service exams
·        Promoted reform
Pres. Harrison’s Response:
·        Returned to political patronage
·        Spent $ on Republican pet (civil war pensions can also be used) projects
Efforts to Help Farmers:
1. Formed cooperatives (or political parties)
2. Pressured states to regulate freight and grain storage rates (or to pass reforms)
3. Offered low cost insurance (or foods thru co-ops)
4. Lobbied for a graduated income tax (reforms)
Factors that weakened efforts:
1. The gov limited the power of the ICC
2. The existence of racial segregation prevented a strong coalition

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