Cold War: Causes of the Cold War
1. The fate of Eastern Europe: Would it become Communist?
2. Control of nuclear weapons: Would the US allow the atomic bomb to be placed under international control?
3. Postwar Economic Assistance: Would the Soviet Union receive economic aid from the United States?
4. Soviet threats to Greece and Turkey
The Cold War Evolves:
1. The Truman Doctrine: The US promises military and economic assistance to any country threatened by Communism.
2. Marshall Plan: Massive US economic aid to Western Europe.
3. Division of Germany into East (pro Soviet) and West (pro US) Germany
4. Berlin Blockade: East Germany blocks transportation to West Berlin; US responds with a massive airlift
5. NATO: The US and Canada and Western Europe form a military alliance. The Soviets and their allies respond by forming the Warsaw Pact
6. The Cold War escalates when Communists take over China in 1949, the Soviet Union develops an atomic bomb, and war breaks out on the Korean peninsula. The Korean War ends in a draw after China intervenes on behalf of North Korea. Some 60,000 Americans died during the war.
7. The Cold War expanded into the developing world, with the US assisting in the overthrow of governments in Iran and Guatemala.
8. The US and Soviet Union came close to nuclear war when the Soviets installed offensive nuclear missiles in Cuba after the US tried to overthrow the Cuban government in the Bay of Pigs invasion.
Post WW2 US:
1. Anti-Communisma. McCarthyism: Senator Joe McCarthy claimed that communists had infiltrated the US government.
b. Red Scare: Fear of communist subversion.
c. Sources of conflict: Charges that diplomat Alger Hiss passed secrets to the Soviet and that Julius and Ethel Rosenberg passed atomic secrets to the Soviet Union.
2. The Growth of the Suburbs
3. The Rise of the Sunbelt (the South and West)
4. The Interstate Highway System
The New Frontier and the Great Society:
1. The New Frontier was the name of President John Kennedy's agenda and the Great Society was President Lyndon Johnson's agenda.
2. The 1960s saw a host of liberal social programs enacted, mainly under President Lyndon Johnson.
3. Johnson's Great Society instituted Medicare, Medicaid, aid to college students, a war on poverty, and programs to help the environment.